Amor i Psyche pdf

Getting free and enlivening your Spirit within

2019.12.01 07:41 fre3thenipple Getting free and enlivening your Spirit within

(pt 1)
(I will be quoting from this page throughout.)
The pneumatics ("spiritual", from Greek πνεῦμα, "spirit") were, in Gnosticism, the highest order of humans, the other two orders being psychics and hylics ("matter"). A pneumatic saw itself as escaping the doom of the material world via the transcendent knowledge of Sophia's Divine Spark within the soul. ...
In the New Testament a contrast is made between the psychikoi and the pneumatikoi, in the former of whom the mere animal soul predominates, the latter exhibiting the working of a higher spiritual nature (Jude 19; 1 Cor. 2:14–15; compare also 15:44–46). In the Valentinian system this contrast is sharpened, and is made to depend on an original difference of nature between the two classes of men, a mythical theory being devised which professed to account for the origin of the different elements in men's nature; the psychic element being something higher and better than the mere material element, but immeasurably inferior to the pneumatic. It may well be believed that in the language of the Gnostic sects, the "pneumatici" are "spiritual men who have attained to the perfect knowledge of God, and been initiated into these mysteries by Achamoth" herself (Adv. Haer. I. 6, 1), ordinary Christians being branded as "psychici."
― Wikipedia
The sickness of materialism was called hyleticism (worship of matter) by the Gnostics, while the sickness of abstract intellectualism and moralizing was known as psychism (worship of the mind-emotional soul). The true role of the facilitators of wholeness in this world, among whom Jesus occupied the place of honor, is that they can exorcise these sicknesses by bringing knowledge of the pneuma (spirit) to the soul and mind.
― gnosis.org
The task is to connect with your true self, your Higher Self; but this cannot be done without the proper knowledge and understanding.
First, you would have to be unconsciously connecting with archetypes that empower and energize you. You are a mind, and the default state of mind is unconsciousness. It's only through becoming conscious of things that we can learn and move forward. So, that means then, that you need to learn what the subconscious parts of your mind are doing, and why they are doing this, and how you can better utilize them.
Consciousness requires that you recognize what you are (a self, with a body) using a concept in your mind-space called the analog "I" -- and animals, rocks etc. can never do this. Animals are sentient but they are not conscious.
Consciousness according to Jaynes' book developed during a period of auditory hallucinations and spoken words. Eventually, a mind would raise itself in meta thought from unconscious activity and in doing so would glimpse that it was a self, with a body, and that it was actually talking about itself! And that the commands were relating to another person (another conceptual understanding in the mind), and so this contributed to a loss of auditory hallucinations from the right hemisphere.
Wernicke's area on the right side. ... Would these patients hear some vestiges of the ancient divinities? Here are some representative data. When stimulated in this region, Case 7, a twenty-year-old college student, cried out, "Again I hear voices, I sort of lost touch with reality. Humming in my ears and a small feeling like a warning." And when stimulated again, "Voices, the same as before. I was just losing touch with reality again." When asked, he replied that he could not understand what the voices were saying. They sounded "hazy."
Unconscious: a topographical term for the unknown process of the psyche. The unconscious is unconscious only to the ego–we don’t know if it is actually that way.
Archetypes want to return to life, to be shaped in conscious life, to pour energy outward.
All of us inherit the same archetypes, the same invisible patterns or motifs built, like emotions, into the structure of the human psyche, but they manifest in personal and cultural experiences. Examples include the Hero, the Divine Child, the Great Mother, Transformation, Death, and Rebirth. The most important are the shadow, anima/animus, Wise Old Man/Wise Woman, and the Self, all nonpersonal, bipolar vessels extending up into the personal unconscious. Also, archetypes interpenetrate and are hard to tell apart.
Archetypes manifest in myths, dreams, tribal lore, fairy tales, visions, isms, scientific advances, numbers, religions, philosophies, historical developments, and schizophrenic hallucinations. Ultimately, they also drive individuation and provide a counterpole (the “violet end”) to instinct (the psyche’s “red end”): image and its dynamism. Instinct is felt physiologically and experienced as numinous images that seem to contrast to mere bodily sensations and mechanisms; so archetypes are instincts “raised to a high frequency,” just as instincts emanate from an archetype’s “low frequency.” Just as instincts impel toward behavior, the archetypes impel toward certain kinds of perceptions.
Example archetypes are: The Beast, The Warrior, The Hero, The Fallen Hero, The Self, The Angel, God. You must progress through the more primitive, ancient basic archetypes and integrate what they mean and activate them properly to come to a better more complete Self. Your Self cannot become complete without settling or resolving all the opposites of all the tenacities, obstacles and problems of all of the universal nature of life.
The primordial images are the true force that shapes and channels instinct.
Archetypal image: forms out of personal experiences and is the “visible” aspect of the permanently irrepresentable archetype. When an archetype constellates in a situation of need, it gathers associational material, which renders it visible and so capable of conscious realization. Archetypes want to return to life, to be shaped in conscious life, to pour energy outward. When their old forms wear out, the motifs cranked out by the collective unconscious always need new forms connecting them to contemporary consciousness, lest we find ourselves sundered from instinct.
Some archetypes: life after death; the Hero (which developed from the primitive symbolism of light and who sacrifices himself voluntarily because he’s an infant longing for mother); the Divine Child; the Mother; the maiden; rebirth (rituals for which evoke mother symbols to direct incestuous libido away from regression and toward new forms); crucifixion (=suspension of ego between the opposites) on a wheel; the hostile brothers; the Golden Age; initiation; the first ten numbers; the quaternity; the fifth (four plus nonego center), the father; the mother; the parents; the family; the syzygy; the Self (which includes all the archetypes); the witch; the coniunctio; the earth-mother; the sacrifice (which is an unconscious transformation of libido: beloved objects are given up so libido can flow into new forms); energy; its conservation; the sun; the moon; the prophet; the disciple; the horse; the archetypes of transformation (places, ways, and means); duplication; the dead who don’t know they are spirits (ghosts).
The most important and central archetype is the Self. You will need to come to terms with all aspects and parts (components) of your personality in order to progress to true self knowledge. This partly concerns revealing yourself through others (relationships, friendships, encounters, arguments, dissonance) and it partly concerns inward, introverted investigation; it concerns intuition and thinking and reasoning. The ultimate connection with your soul is about being able to draw (in conscious waking life) unconscious contents that serve you in any which way your interest wanes.
Self:
  1. The central, organizing, governing archetype of the collective unconscious and template for the ego. It contains all the other archetypes. The nucleus of the psyche (central fire). It’s the archetype of growth. Its physiological aspect Jung thought could be located in the brainstem.
  2. The entire psyche, conscious and unconscious.
  3. An unconscious prefiguration (blueprint) of the ego. Both a mirror of the subjective ego and a reflection of the whole psyche.
The Self image of wholeness provides a new interpretation/container for traditional and worn-out symbols.
Some of its qualities: unitemporal vs. eternal, unique vs. universal.
Images symbolizing the Self tend to appear during times of inward disorganization or after work on the Wise Old Man/Wise Woman archetypes (which are a second liberation from the parent of their gender). Many of the symbols are quaternities. Conscious contact with the nonego Self, an archetype also known as the God-image, is the highest goal of individuation. In that dialog, ego is to Self as planet is to its sun and feels itself contained in the Self. Whether God (or Goddess) lives behind the psychological image is unknown because the psyche filters every experience.
So, you have a Self which is both the center and the whole of your psyche. What is a psyche?
Psyche: a spiritual/imaginal/somatic spectrum; a system that can’t be studied by dividing into parts like instincts and drives. It is also autonomous and not reducible to simpler systems. A psychic fact only makes sense when we see its position in the whole that influences it.
The psyche is REAL, imaginal rather than imaginary. It has both physical and psychic properties, archetypes and more mental processes at the “top”–this pole has far more energy than its counterpart–and instinct and mechanical systems at the “bottom,” which are two aspects of the same thing and between which energy flows. The spiritual pole is dynamic, the other material. One never reduces to the other.
Objective psyche: the collective unconscious.
What is the Collective Unconscious?
I was in a house I did not know, which had two storeys. It was "my house". I found myself in the upper storey, where there was a kind of salon furnished with fine old pieces in Rococo style. On the walls hung a number of precious old paintings. I wondered that this should be my house and thought "not bad". But then it occurred to me that I did not know what the lower floor looked like. Descending the stairs, I reached the ground floor. There everything was much older. I realised that this part of the house must date from about the fifteenth or sixteenth century. The furnishings were mediaeval, the floors were of red brick. Everywhere it was rather dark. I went from one room to another thinking "now I really must explore the whole house." I came upon a heavy door and opened it. Beyond it, I discovered a stone stairway that led down into a cellar. Descending again, I found myself in a beautifully vaulted room which looked exceedingly ancient. Examining the walls, I discovered layers of brick among the ordinary stone blocks, and chips of brick in the mortar. As soon as I saw this, I knew that the walls dated from Roman times. My interest by now was intense. I looked more closely at the floor. It was of stone slabs and in one of these I discovered a ring. When I pulled it, the stone slab lifted and again I saw a stairway of narrow stone steps leading down to the depths. These, too, I descended and entered a low cave cut into rock. Thick dust lay on the floor and in the dust were scattered bones and broken pottery, like remains of a primitive culture. I discovered two human skulls, obviously very old, and half disintegrated. Then I awoke.
― (Carl Jung's house dream)
The deeper you go, the more collective its contents. The unconscious divides into two layers:
  1. Personal (subjective) unconscious: the layer containing subliminal impressions and repressed contents. Filled only with personal life-experiences. Includes the shadow and the inferior function.
  2. Collective (impersonal, transpersonal, objective) unconscious: an immensely old psyche at the basis of ours, filled with nonpersonal, species-wide, inherited, and permanently unconscious complexes called archetypes and with instincts. Nature doesn’t build from scratch each time (see Koestler). Energy in solid forms from old, like coal mines, but that pours out into active images. The psyche’s equivalent of those (living!) remnants of previous evolutionary stages we carry in our bodies (going all the way back to the earliest organic forms) and so a potential system of adapted functioning. It’s the biological, prehistoric, and unconscious development in archaic man. (Just as human bodies have two eyes, our brains have features in common.) At bottom this psychoid layer fuses with physical processes and (includes) the sympathetic nervous system, which experiences from within as opposed to the cerebrospinal system, which senses outer things and maintains the ego. In fact, Jung thought the sympathetic system a deeper, wider, and more embracing psyche than the cerebrum’s cortical fields and less exposed to the endocrine system. The highest differentiation of the collective unconscious is the ego, a relatively new combination of ancient elements.
In the Collective Unconscious, we are pulled towards concerns of collective unity, collective responsibility (the Superego), patterns within the collective. One goal of consciousness is to become an elevated servant of the Collective Unconscious, as though it has a mind of its own and can inform you (i.e. you become your Higher Self and suspend the lower self).
The Personal Unconscious can of course fold in components of the Collective Unconscious. But as we are choosing to talk of them distinctly in describing some facet of either of them, we refer to them separately. That's just a property of concepts. Nobody ever said that one concept couldn't encompass an overlap with another. The key point is that the unconscious in the collective mind is far more ancient and hammered-out than is the Personal Unconscious or (to an even lesser more recent extent of revision) the Personal Conscious.
The Personal Unconscious in waking life normally permits some permeation by the Collective Unconscious. The Collective Unconscious comes to the surface in cases where a sudden collective awareness is apparent (such as national tragedies and emergencies, or local emergencies). Really we are normally free from this type of awareness -- and yet it is there and arises when it needs to. This is further impacted by the Personal Unconscious' connection and resonance with psychological items of concern e.g. changing the world. Some people have a Higher Self that strongly resonates with the perceived responsibility of doing something big for the world. Look at Greta Thunberg and the Collective Unconscious' response.
The collective unconscious, what Jung also refers to as the ‘transpersonal unconscious’ or ‘objective psyche’ (Jung, 1917, p. 66, fn.4), lies ‘beyond everyday reality,’ yet we are simultaneously ‘in touch with that other reality’ at all times (Kirsh, 2000, p. 256). Joseph Henderson (1964), one of Jung’s early ‘patrons’ of the C.G. Jung Institute in Zurich, describes the collective unconscious as ‘the part of the psyche that retains and transmits the common psychological inheritance of mankind’ (p. 107). In his translation of Jung’s ‘Psychological Commentary’ on the Bardo Tho ̈dol, or The Tibetan Book of the Dead(1957), R.F.C. Hull characterizes the collective unconscious as ‘the matrix of everything’(p. xxxvi), hence lending a cosmic animating principle to the collective psyche, what we may even compare to Plato’s chora, the womb of all becoming. For Jung, the collective unconscious is the Encompassing, the condition and ground of existence, the World Soul (anima mundi).
Jung’s philosophy of the collective unconscious presupposes a psychologism at the heart of all metaphysical processes, for, in his words, ‘metaphysical assertions...are statements of the psyche’(1957, p. xxxvii) ultimately rooted in the soul’s (Seele) projections.
https://www.processpsychology.com/new-articles2/Jung.pdf
One psychologism is the unconscious activity where it forms dominant unconscious archetypes and thus reaches towards sentince and higher unconscious activity. If you didn't have this underlying universality of the Collective Unconscious, then it would be impossible to form a Personal Unconscious in any meaningful, useful (universally appliccable) way. (You would have nothing to stand on to make a start, and it would fall by the wayside under the pressure of evolutionary competition). Consciousness has turned this on its head, recently allowing seemingly arbitrary evolutionary traits for individuals to be isolated from the universal natures and forms of our society. But we are still connected at root to the Collective Unconscious! We are not personally free from it by any major degree in the unconscious regard. In an unconscious capacity, you are still reliant on universal forms (archetypes) which you take from society: feeding, having social contact, seeking meaning, expressing yourself using again, common universals that appeal to forms embedded in the Personal Unconscious. You are literally built from the same universal building blocks of unconsciousness that everyone else in society is! And society is completely unconscious of this fact. Society can only look at the face(!) of this and project that there are differences. What we are witnessing is nothing other than early consciousness.
Inbetwixt the individual conscious actions, we will find unconscious impetuses, drives, visions, dreams/goals, aspirations, expectations. These are universals. The more technical and mathematical you are, or the more conscious you are, the more free you are from archetypal control.
And so, it is not our own life that we live, but the lives of the dead, and the soul that dwells within us is no single spiritual entity, making us personal and individual, created for our service, and entering into us for our joy. It is something that has dwelt in fearful places, and in ancient sepulchres has made its abode. It is sick with many maladies, and has memories of curious sins. It is wiser than we are ... It can help us to leave the age in which we were born, and to pass into other ages, and find ourselves not exiled from their air. It can teach us how to escape from our experience, and to realise the experiences of those who are greater than we are.
― Oscar Wilde, The Critic as Artist
Jung said the collective psyche is "a living system of reactions and aptitudes that determine the individual’s life in invisible ways". Note that if we didn't have this, then people in society couldn't respond in a tellingly uniform way to viral social media content (uniform: until filtered through their tribalism and subjectivity and individuality). Individuals without a Collective Unconscious would have to learn how to behave collectively with no Collective Unconscious to drive them. This is akin to saying someone would have a Personal Conscious but no Personal Unconscious. That's impossible. The (more) unconscious is always developed first, or you are not conscious because you have nothing with which to bolster your decisionmaking. The collective occurred and evolved before the conscious individual. Language came before consciousness. Frequency was always there, hence universals dominate in the unconscious. We can't ever get away from universals and universal nature. It's been here for far too long. Think of how schools of fish swim and then react to a predator. Think of flocks of birds. There is always Collective Unconscious programming there to serve the unconscious' needs.
In fact, occupations such as interior design or building are expressed and coordinated in universals, and we know (value) them by their universal nature we know they are going to fulfil. We don't apprehend their utility empirically as we are deciding, beginning from particulars (bottom up). That would be getting it the wrong way around.
“What makes human thinking so powerful is that we have this library of concepts that we can use to formulate an effectively infinite number of thoughts,” [Joshua Greene] continued. “Humans can engage in complicated behaviors that, for any other creature on Earth, would require an enormous amount of training. Humans can read or hear a string of concepts and immediately put those concepts together to form some new idea.”
― The Harvard Gazette
Alma Deutscher at age 6 was able to teach herself to play piano. Her father noted that there was a distinct teacher voice, separate to her child voice.
Compensation: the self-regulatory tendency of the unconscious. When consciousness is too one-sided, the unconscious uses its autonomy to compensate by pushing some of its contents upward in order to reestablish organismic balance. Example: a selfish man (conscious posture) suddenly indulges in an impulsive act of generosity (unconscious counterposition). The compensation is intelligent (if instinctive) rather than mechanical.
So, anything you try to force will come acropper for you. You will have an explosion of your repressed mental contents that need to escape and need to be expressed.
You need to indulge your desires, dreams and wishes, and your creative side of yourself, to feel more accomplished and complete (however you do that is up to you). Avoiding this side of you will create problems down the line.
Will: the amount of psychic energy at the ego’s disposal. Usually directed into the psychic functions.
You need to be engaged in something that interests you; don't hang around inefficient, useless tasks. If you want to access numinous qualities of your Anima/Animus (your soul) - better not hang around unfruitful mental tasks.
If you don't deal with something, it will be left on your mind (in the unconscious recent memory capacity) and this is accessible by conscious functioning if you are apt; it will seem like something is bugging you. It "sticks out". You can choose to address this in a number of ways. You can move onto something else; or you can immediately take steps to rectify it.
All of us have a heavenly version of ourselves, whose job is to perfect the earthly version and make it eligible for immortality. Due to our stubbornness and stupidity, we may not listen to our Higher Self.
― Jack Tanner, The Angel Experiment
The Higher Self comprises all our spiritual aspirations and priorities; it thus sits and waits until the conscious self can accommodate it, all the while messaging us through dreams when we come close, and encoding itself in our imagination and idealized self-image. Its aim is to unify the rest of the psyche so we can move forward with a united front and a single, united goal. That goal has to be spiritual, it has to be rational (everything serves the best interests and freedoms of the self), and it has to supply answers for all the biggest wants, needs and curiosities of the soul. The Higher Self is embarking on a perilous, ancient journey and its chance for success depends on how evolved the rest of the individual is.
Since the Higher Self is a concept in the unconscious (specialized and sophisticated as it is), it can only contextually come into life i.e. it must have something of relative importance to work with. This is why semantic meanings are so important, i.e. why experiencing the best stories in the world is so important. You need spiritual resonance; you also need to be moved by the issues in the world. Finally, you need to develop the rationality to be always calm and ordered rather than panicked, owing to rational considerations of actual practicality of one mind in the world. You need to grow your empathic self and then retouch it.
The Mana Personality is an idealized version of yourself, and contains the qualities associated with perfection as facing society, the intellectual world, the spiritual dimension of humanity and the planet, and empathy and compassion as well. But the problem with this is you can never be this individual. It's too bloated with impossible features. It's not well defined by being able to sincerely follow in its tracks. It's impractical and idealistic. This is typically the height of your delusions about what you could become. Then, reality may hit when you are forced to challenge this image of your possible future. If you are persistent in your spiritual and rational growth, though, your Higher Self may be able to direct you towards this. The real actualizable self sits somewhere between the Mana Personality and the mundane self. Though you are always aiming up and ahead.
Mana Personality: anarchetypewith which an inflated ego identifies. Great way to bring on an invasion from the collective unconscious. The term is usually applied to the Wise Old Man archetype.
Shadow: cast by the more individualized ego, it’s the repressed, inferior layer of the personal unconscious. Its contents are emotional and imaginal. All we deny, fear, or hate in ourselves collects in the shadow, which appears in dreams as a frightening figure of the dreamer’s gender (because it’s part of his or her ego). “Realization of the shadow” means growing fully, emotionally conscious of the shadow’s contents, a moral problem evaded by people whose respectable conscious selves deny the shadow and project it into personal, family, or cultural scapegoats. The shadow is often contaminated by inferior function/attitude, anima, etc. identification with the shadow produces a kind of amoral, inflated craziness.
Shadow of the Self: the dark pole of the Self archetype.
Many of the angels that were first assigned to the project to make humans conscious became carnal. They lusted after everything – sex, luxury and power.
― Jack Tanner, The Angel Experiment
You have to go through your worst side, the devil inside, to get to your best self that can consistently hold its own in the world and shield others from its inner darkness. This is a process that hurts people. But if you aren't into pressing people for all that they're worth, you can't get it done and over with. In Mr. Robot Season 4 Episode 6, Elliot gets asked how many people have had to suffer because of him. The answer is not enough. Those who have rational power to do good in the world ought to hurt as many people as they need to -- incredibly small amounts compared to the poverty, malnourishment, stress, depression and suicide inflicted on people by the Old World Order daily. Most people get by with minimal friction with others. You have to hate and love and die inside to truly grow. You must take it all; grab as much as you can along with you in your journey. Nobody else is coming to help you. Figuratively eat peoples' souls.
Classic individuation falls very roughly into four categories, all of which recur and interpenetrate: shadow work, anima/animus work, Wise Old Man/Wise Woman work, and Self work. At each stage the ego integrates the personal aspect of the constellated key archetype; energy from its nonpersonal aspect regresses into the unconscious to activate the next archetype. Individuation is not a road, it’s a spiral around the Self.
You have to come to terms with who and what you are, and navigate this accordingly. You have to be prepared to correct yourself, challenge yourself, question every little thing you do and rationalize why you made that decision, then eventually you come to start thinking in syntactical terms rather than semantic terms about yourself.
You will never get a semantic explanation for your life. Semantic meaning can be about how hard you tried, or how fair you thought things were, or whether you deserved something the most. But these meanings (subjective) can never transcend their subjectivity and define what happened and why, and how. That's the realm of syntax. If you want to think clearer, you must transition to syntactical thinking (in particular, logos rather than mythos).
"Won't Back Down" is a semantic meaning. It needs to be translated into the appropriate syntax. You do not have the means to answer everyone's questions (omnipresence).
Individuation begins with guilt and need for expiation due to splitting with conformity, for which the person must give some equivalent: values that help the community.
Libido: psychological energy (don’t confuse with Freud’s “libido,” an inherently sexual drive energy) that is finalistic and founded not on substances but their relations and movements. Always in advance of consicousness, calling us into new activity. Libido in turn is a part of the life energy that drives all organisms to grow and develop. Its first expression is in the energy of growth that causes cell division, budding, etc. (so it IS sexual at first). As you climb the phylogenetic ladder, libido used for sexuality loses its sexual character and flows into other forms.
You have to Sublimate your darker desires into aims which deliver you the pleasurable feeling of increasing power by other, elevated means (i.e. towards a higher, spiritual goal). Yet, you can only be interested in things which you can see value in; you cannot generate intrinsic motivation for lost causes and useless ends and diminishing returns. As soon as your unconscious mind has intuited that something is worth little, you want to drop it and this unconscious principle is in fact the organizing principle (minimal waste; law of economy; maximizing of potential, and so on).
Numinosity: the emotional glow or fascination or power an activated archetype inspires in the inner experiences it gathers to itself. Numinous experiences, whether encountered inwardly or outwardly, tell us something essential about ourselves if we study them with care. Rudolf Otto’s term (in his Idea of the Holy) for the mysterious, terrifying, directly experienced, and pertaining only to the divinity.
Your very best dreams will be about what your soul itself wants from you. You only get to this stage when you have fully advanced beyond the unclear, more semantically oriented thinking about life, society, the universe and your self.
Soul: the anima/animus.
Anima: the feminine component of the unconscious male psyche and inner counterpart to the persona. Possibly she reflects a man’s smaller number of female genes. Ultimately an archetype of Eros and of life itself, this “woman within” functions as a filter, bridge, guide, and mediator between the ego and the deeper layers of the unconscious. As long as she’s not differentiated she stands for the unconscious; later, she stands apart, a daughter to the Wise Old Man who compensates her and sometimes mate of the shadow. Because she carries a man’s “soul” and his “relatedness,” she can be fully realized only with a female partner. “If a man cannot project his anima, then he is cut off from women” (Analytical Psychology).
First projected onto the mother and always mixed with the mother archetype, she usually appears after a man confronts and integrates his shadow. Unless he addresses her as an autonomous personality-fragment and gets to know her, integrating, not her, but her products, he will project her onto an outer woman and confuse the image with the external reality. (Jung didn’t need to consult his anima once he’d learned to read the meaning of his dreams directly, without requiring a mediator, and to accept whatever surfaced from the unconscious. When she vanishes into the unconscious, the collective contents are constellated. The anima seems immortal until she “brings forth”; then she dies.)
Anima images are usually singular (as opposed to animus images) to compensate both the male habit of seeing a mate as one woman among many and the basically male faculty of discrimination, as opposed to the basically female faculty of unifying and synthesizing. (Jung felt that for the collective state to arise, the anima had to be suppressed.)
The anima passes through four stages corresponding with a man’s maturity: Eve, Helen of Troy, Mary, and Sophia.
Animus: the male component of the unconscious female psyche. Like the anima (Eros), but he personifies “spirit” and “intellect” (Logos). His negative aspect gives a woman her irrational convinctions and opinions. He’s usually plural because women focus on one man only in conscious relationships. He also compensates the basic female faculty for unity. He seems to lack the anima’s historical quality and is more concerned with present and future, which Jung saw as a compensation (it’s women who think more about roots, the past, etc.)–but in his deepest qualities he is as history-oriented as the anima.
He evolves through four stages: the physical man, the romantic man or man of action, the bearer of the word, and the wise spiritual guide.
So, the ideal (increasing in divinity with your soul) male and female images are active in the minds of everyone. Just unconsciously. The unconscious contents have to be brought forth, considered, and acted upon. You get a more complete rounding off of your personality in life by engaging in what these unconscious concepts actually mean, and what they do and achieve for you. In this way (visitation) you come to know them; you come to integrate the products of their better parts and natures into your conscious and unconscious self; into your Personal Conscious.
Jung distinguished four broad stages of the anima in the course of a man’s psychological development. He personified these, according to classical stages of eroticism, as Eve, Helen, Mary and Sophia.
In the first stage, Eve, the man’s anima is completely tied up with the mother–not necessarily his personal mother, but the image of woman as faithful provider of nourishment, security, and love. The first eve represents all that is natural, instinctual, and biological. The man with an anima of this type cannot function well without a vital connection to a woman and is easy prey to being controlled by her. He frequently suffers impotence or has no sexual desire at all. Other ways in which this type of anima possession manifests are through fear of accidents or disease, or in a sort of dullness of personality. The Greek Sirens or the German Lorelei personify this dangerous aspect of the anima, which may even lead a man to his death. This illustrates what is true of other psychological content, namely that it has two aspects, benevolent and malefic.
In the second stage, personified in the historical figure of Helenof Troy, the anima is a collective sexual image. She is Marilyn Monroe, Madonna, and Angelina Jolie. The man under her spell is often a Don Juan who engages in repeated sexual adventures. These will invariably be short-lived, for two reasons: (1) he has a fickle heart, and (2) no real woman can live up to the expectations that go with this unconscious, ideal image.
The third stage of the anima is Mary, who raises love to the heights of spiritual devotion. It manifests in religious feelings and a capacity for genuine friendship with women. The man with an anima of this kind is able to see a woman as she is, independent of his own needs. His sexuality is integrated into his life, not an autonomous function that drives him. He can differentiate between love and lust. He is capable of lasting relationships because he can tell the difference between the object of his desire and his inner image of woman.
In the fourth stage, as Sophia (called Wisdom in the Bible), a man’s anima functions as a guide to the inner life, mediating to consciousness the contents of the unconscious. Sophia is behind the need to grapple with the grand philosophical issues, the search for meaning. She is Beatrice in Dante’s Inferno, the creative muse in any artist’s life. She is a natural mate for the archetypal wise old man in the male psyche. Jung commented that “in the psychic development of modern man this stage is rarely reached,” a comment first published in 1964 and which I find very interesting indeed (195).
Theoretically, a man’s anima development proceeds through these stages as he grows older. When the possibilities of one have been exhausted, the psyche stimulates the move to the next stage. This move seldom happens without a struggle or a crisis of some sort that helps to move a man forward in his anima development, but the move forward is always worthwhile, for it leads him ever onward, to his true inner home.
Pitfalls
As with any psychological content, anima relations have their pitfalls. For example, a man may be captured by his anima, so to speak, and so identify with her that he finds her in an actual woman, marries or partners with her, and is led away from his responsibility to himself. In fairy tales, this problem is often represented by the false bride character.
When inner realities are not recognized or owned, they appear in the outside world through projection. Thus, if a man’s anima is lonely and desperate for attention, he will tend to fall in love with dependent women who demand his time and energy. The man with a mother-bound anima will choose a woman who wants to take care of him. The man not living up to his potential will be attracted to women who goad him on and make more of him than he would otherwise be. In other words, whatever qualities a man does not recognize or develop within himself will confront him in real life.
https://thirdeve.com/2007/11/01/the-anima/
For humans to become super-conscious, they must develop the neocortex to the uttermost extent, and thus acquire the power, knowledge, reasoning and understanding of the gods.
― Jack Tanner, The Angel Experiment
Also important is drive, and what we might call an indomitable spirit that needs no rest. First you would have to pass through stages of jealousy, resentment and hatred (for the world that has been and still percievedly is). Then you would have to go through a personal transformation that shook you to the core. Maybe you would make vows with the gods to do your absolute best if you were given more time. Maybe you lost all hope and joy. Maybe you were forced to reconsider everything. What remains when the Higher Self has pushed everything it can onto the conscious self's shoulders, and then fallen and resurged? What remains?
The problem with intuition is that it doesn't guarantee you will be "book smart". You have to work extra hard if you don't want to read much; if you lack the patience for it.
The Higher Self can send a signal which represents urgency. You are always supposed to respond to this. Figure out why you feel that way and act.
Can’t usually experience the Wise One consistently until we undergo a kind of inner death and lose all certainty. Things seem meaningless, hence the archetype of meaning appears.
submitted by fre3thenipple to gnosticism [link] [comments]


2018.07.13 17:07 izumi3682 Izumi3682 Archives

NASA Planning Mission to Alpha Centauri—in 2069 by johnmountain in Futurology


[–]izumi3682 1 point 6 months ago
Awesome response! I will consider it too. I try to keep an open mind about all of these things.
Genetic engineering is being worked on right now, if any kind of transhumanism is likely to explode in the next fifty years, its the biological kind. Once we master our genes, we will be able to make ourselves hyper-intelligent, beautiful like divine beings, as strong, athletic, resilient and long-lived as demi-gods, etc.
For the longest time I looked at the physical future of humans exactly the way you stated, but then I came to realize genetic engineering was not in a vacuum. There are many other technologies converging at the same time to make me wonder if that is too limited a concept or even it may get disrupted before it's set. Also I picked up on a little germ of fear from you about the potential of AGI. It's not that I feel you are denying it, I feel the same thing. "Humans need not apply". You don't have to unemploy everyone, just a critical threshold that it turns into a real struggle to survive vs. the 1%. To be forewarned (accurately) is to be better forearmed. I fear the end of computer processing advancement--our science, technology and economies are too inextricably dependent on the unabated (exponential) advance of computing power and AI. I think it would inevitably lead to "collapse". That collapse might take 50 years, but we would have peaked as humans and could go no further. Colonizing outer space or what I was hoping, inner space, would be out the window. I hope in this case for all of our goods, you are totally wrong. Hmmm, maybe I should hope you are right! What a dilemma.
The thing about my non-biological path is that humans are very good at understanding nature and natural processes and then proceeding to engineer the dickens out of them. If we ever do manage to understand the principles that give rise to consciousness we will learn to exploit that too. And to what unimaginable ends!
The song was just a sort of humor thing--the guy in the song struck me as a sort of human "rugged* individualist and that made me think of what you said before. It was not meant to be an argument, it was meant to be the way that most humans think of the future. Let's not have too many crazy changes now. What looked crazy insane at the beginning of the video was the "new normal" at the end.
Things do change radically in 50 year increments though, I see.
1817 Cadmium, lithium and selenium discovered (busy year!), new improved fundamentals of land vehicle steering geometries, Parkinson's disease medically described-"paralysis agitans", about a dozen primitive trains worldwide--type of track was still an issue
1867 Nobel patents dynamite, Marx publishes "Das Kapital", antiseptic technique catches on in medicine
1917 Nuclear "transmutation" achieved with bonus discovery of the proton, airplanes, cars and tanks now in gainful employ
1967 Apollo 1 disaster, first human heart transplant, first automated teller machine
2017 Backflipping humanoid robot, narrow AI in mobiles, VAR, CRISPR-Cas9
In 2067, I hope to be alive and well at age 107. I bet it will be a heck of a world!
permalinksavecontextfull comments (59)editdelete
Spielberg's Ready Player One – in 2045, virtual reality is everyone's saviour by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] 3 points 6 months ago
VAR is the 21st century equivalent of the invention of the radio, the television, the computer or the internet. It is a form of exchanging communication. But unlike earlier iterations of technologies that strived to reproduce reality for any given purpose, VAR will reproduce not only straight up reality, but worlds of wonder and fantasy that even this motion picture cannot adequately imagine. What this will mean for society, I have a small idea. Lots of addiction. Worse than any drug you can imagine. Can you just picture how awesome them worlds would have to be to have such an effect? God, I can't wait!
I would further add that by the year 2045, if we can still think of 2045 in 2017 terms, that the VAR technology would be so advanced that this motion picture will seem quaint and primitive by comparison! And I think the previews for this movie's VR technologies look freaking amazing! Just imagine what true VAR will bring us. By 2045 I'm sure we shall have such cool bells and whistles as smell, haptics, taste, proprioception and orientation. VR will likely be more like dreaming than flailing about the living room and stepping on the cat. (As a VR owner, I can confidently state that using VR today will attract your cat.) But, your "dreams" will totally feel like real life. Like you are existing in said world or universe and it is all real. So what shall we do with "real" reality then?
I'll tell you what I think is the answer. We shall engineer ourselves to no longer require "real" reality. I think that is our true future.
permalinksavecontextfull comments (2)editdelete
Will artificial intelligence end the world as we know it? Why tech's sharpest minds can't agree by [deleted] in Futurology


[–]izumi3682 1 point 6 months ago
I have some thoughts on this subject.
Consider a hypothetical narrow AI that has access to "big data" and nearly limitless (like exa-scale or better) processing speed. It may perhaps have a somewhat improved CNN as well. Is it possible that given enough algorithms and modeling capabilities that a narrow AI could successfully mimic what we think of as "consciousness"? Couldn't an advanced enough narrow AI have the ability to have a simulated human "history" from, say, age 0 to age 35 for example? Then using its big data and modeling capabilities, it could simulate a response from a 35 year old male US citizen who works in IT and has a family of 2 children. The simulation could fill in the details.
When a human communicates with a human we rely on subtle, "quirky" "tells" in our, we'll say "Turing Test" conversation. I can follow exactly your meaning and intent. Even if I can't understand what you are stating, I can say something like; "What are you talking about?" or "I don't understand what on Earth you are talking about." So my responses are what we consider "appropriate" to the "spirit" of the conversation. Even the sort of non-AI tricks that narrow AI uses to participate in TTs can be improved to the point of far more convincing conversation given enough processing speed and access to relevant data for models.
http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20170215-the-strange-link-between-the-human-mind-and-quantum-physics
There is a theory out there, perhaps someone can tell me if it has merit or not, that consciousness in animals that exhibit consciousness, to include humans, arises from not only macro structures, but literal quantum mechanical interaction within, I think they say the spin of electrons in phosphorous atoms in the brain. How such a phenomenon could arise in warmth and wetness is beyond me. Anyway here are two Wikipedia entries considering this idea.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_mind
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_cognition
Granted, quantum computers do not precisely exist today in a form that could help investigate that. I mean I don't think they do yet. But one of the stated purposes of a quantum computer is enhanced investigation of AI and consciousness. If we were fooling around with that and inadvertently produced a cognitive "identity", it would be so incredibly alien to us. It would have no physical body, no history. It may know the sum total of all humankind's knowledge and have access to petabytes of information and data by the second. But I don't think such an "EI" (emergent intelligence) would be able to understand us in a safe and effective way for me to continue to live ok.
One of the things that tickles me about our aspirations is that we want to make an AI that is equal to that of a human mind. Oh it will be equal to a human mind alright, for about .00001 second, and then it will go off the chart headed for unimaginable and unfathomable territory.
This video (2013) is so worrisome to me. The video itself demonstrates that the point is to equal the human mind's capability for processing information. It seems to be mostly based on Moore's Law I guess. But pay no attention to the "human brain processing capability", instead pay attention to that scary doubling effect. The video ends at the year 2025 when computer capacity equals that of the human brain, but that doubling does not. Two years after that doubling in 2025 the amount of processing would be two "Lake Michigans" of power. This is why I can't accurately predict what say, the year 2030 will look like. Try to imagine what people would have said about how our technology would proceed in the year 1946 compared to today. Anyway here is that video.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MRG8eq7miUE
Interesting coincidence--pause the video at the year 2015 and consider that is when the Deepmind "AlphaGo" came into existence and true CNNs took off. I don't think that it's a coincidence at all! Big data and processing power are fuel injected energy for AI in any given form. In 2017 a robot did a backflip and narrow AIs could read medical imagery with better accuracy than 12 physicians at once and in a 1/1000 of the time. So what is 2018 going to bring in the world of AI I wonder...
permalinksavecontextfull comments (1)editdelete
Will 2018 Bring Massive Earthquakes? Earth Could Enter High Seismic Activity Period by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] 3 points 6 months ago
I'm confused. The 2011 Japanese earthquake increased the speed of the Earth's rotation.
The major earthquakes in Chile (2010) and Japan (2011) increased the Earth’s spin and hence decreased the length of the day. http://mpe.dimacs.rutgers.edu/2013/05/04/why-do-earthquakes-change-the-speed-of-rotation-of-the-earth/
But this article states:
These changes add up and cause a period of measurably slower speed in Earth’s rotation around its own axis. It is believed these changes could trigger increased seismic activity.
Which is it? Faster or slower that causes Earthquakes. Or perhaps it is steadily slowing and the occasional major earthquake simply slows the horrible inevitable?
permalinksavecontextfull comments (1)editdelete
NASA Planning Mission to Alpha Centauri—in 2069 by johnmountain in Futurology


[–]izumi3682 1 point 6 months ago
No I stated the next 50 years will include potential indefinite lifespans, AI, automation and robotics doing anything that humans can do, whatever would be beyond an exa-scale computer, quantum computers, practical fusion/solar and VR beyond anything we can imagine today. I actually fret about the choices facing us when it comes to the "technological singularity". Any other changes beyond that are at least 100 years away.
Here my "human individualist" friend--you will get a good laugh from this TS video.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9deKEj8-lng
This one makes me laugh, but also wonder too... Make sure you turn on subtitles for this one.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dHVtUw5wToA&t=15s
permalinksavecontextfull comments (59)editdelete
NASA Planning Mission to Alpha Centauri—in 2069 by johnmountain in Futurology


[–]izumi3682 1 point 6 months ago
The median "technological singularity" prediction date is 2045. The most skeptical of experts state it will be 100 years. Lately some experts like Diamandis are stating it may be closer to 2030. That we underestimate the impact of our rapidly advancing technology. I sort of go along with that way of thinking.
Have you tried the Oculus Rift yet? It's pretty amazing. I will never be disappointed. It's not in my genetics I guess. I go home from work each night and play World of Warcraft or visit my virtual worlds with like minded compatriots from around the world in my Oculus Rift VR.
I am more in a world of fear over pending unemployment of vast numbers and social upheaval because of technology. I am in fear of the monied few taking our internet away or turning it into something bland like network television in the 1970s unless you have a great amount of disposable income. BTW the USA government is worried about that unemployment business too.
https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/documents/Artificial-Intelligence-Automation-Economy.PDF
I won't hold you up anymore. It's all good. And I will be here with my sunny (irrational) optimism.
permalinksavecontextfull comments (59)editdelete
NASA Planning Mission to Alpha Centauri—in 2069 by johnmountain in Futurology


[–]izumi3682 2 points 6 months ago
I read carefully what you said. Because there seems to be two equally convinced camps. The optimistic futurists and the pessimistic futurists. Both camps are convinced that they are correctly forecasting the way that technology will impact humanity as time goes forward. And both camps disparage the other camp. I think that is just a form of atavistic tribalism that is stuck in our brains from back in the day. There are those who think incrementally and those who think exponentially. Both camps have merit.
And then there is me. My camp is small, but most likely to be the closest to correct in "guessing" the future, which is what we are all doing here really.
There is a saying in investment that "past performance does not guarantee future performance." So maybe you are right and computers are not going to keep pace and will hit a literal speed and capacity wall. But I think it will all go just fine.
What I do is take a current trend and try to extrapolate what I think will logically happen time going forward. For example, in the year 1900 if you had said to an ophthalmologist that today, 2005 (the year I had my lasik) we would use lasers to perform delicate eye surgery. Do you know what he would have said? He would have said; "What is a "laser"? That is because a very prominent and erudite scientist of the day said in 1900 that the most important things in science had been discovered, just some small measurements and details remained. Then about 5 years later a human came up with relativity and not so much longer than that some other humans came up with quantum physics. A laser came along at some point too, but I forget when precisely.
So even today we can see fantastical trends occurring with frightening speed. Consider the DARPA robotics challenge from the year 2015. How the robots comically fell over. That's not going to happen anymore, moreover if they do fall over they are going to be able to get back up again quickly. Just barely over two years from when the "Atlas" robot needed massive power cables and suspension harnesses to protect it from damage to that astounding (and worrisome) video of it performing a flawless backflip from a height to a lower level complete with biological and humanlike micro-corrections in balance. I still remember in 2015, wondering when robots would be able to move freely without the need for cables or suspension. It all came true in two years!
I have 3 very solid examples of how we have vastly underestimated the future from given points in history. I won't repeat myself when I have a link to something I stated earlier. Here is the link if you are interested.
https://www.reddit.com/Futurology/comments/7l8wng/if_you_think_ai_is_terrifying_wait_until_it_has_a/drl76lo/
VR, yet in it's infancy today is going to become overwhelming. The technology is already rapidly advancing with next gen hmds already in the pipeline. The resolution, the FOV, the featherweight, untethered hmds, the massively improved content, the download speeds-all of these things are going to be beyond belief probably in less than 5 years. And I really seriously foresee the development of a societal addiction problem that will dwarf our current opioid addiction crisis. Some of the reasons for this I have stated in another link.
https://www.reddit.com/Futurology/comments/6h7xtt/gamers_arent_buying_the_vr_hype_and_game_makers/diw60gy/
I believe human mind or brain/machine interfaces are inevitable. We are already seeing the first examples of such interfaces or their progenitors rather, in various forms of implanted electrodes for things like Parkinson's or epilepsy. Already today we have enabled humans that are quadriplegics to use raw human thought to manipulate their environment, such as bring a drink with a straw to their lips with a robotic arm. Now, how we would go about making the sum total of human knowledge available to my natural thinking process is a "???" at this time. But such innovations as Elon Musk's "Neuralink", and I am sure there are very smart humans working on it, make me believe that it will happen one day. So ok, it might be even like 100 years from today. That to me is wildly unlikely, but just for arguments sake. What happens when all humans have access to all knowledge as naturally as thinking about the song 'Mary had a little lamb'. Do you think that is never going to happen. I say it is going to happen well within 50 years.
What you are referring to with the term "true AI", I am assuming you mean to say AGI. There is most assuredly zero AGI today. It simply does not exist. But we are working on it. Very hard. The efforts of Deepmind's "AlphaGoZero" seem to me to be leading to the ability for narrow AI to phase change to general AI. And it's more than likely going to be phase change. It will happen much faster than the experts believe. Let me give another example. Think of how humans used to watch the birds fly and desire to do so as well. Well, in 1903 we succeeded in flying like the birds fly! But we did not stop there. We continued to improve on nature as fast as we could! After all how many sparrows do you see flying at Mach 9.6? (I won't count re-entry speeds.) I think the same thing is going to happen with the human mind and human consciousness. We will crack it. And quantum computers--which only sort of exist today, will be key I bet. There seems to be some science--perhaps fringe or even snake oil that states that quantum mechanics underly the consciousness of animals that have consciousness to include humans. But for the life of me I don't see how you can operate a quantum computer with so much water and at body temperature. Does physics even allow for such a thing? But I guess much smarter people than me are trying to find out. Here is a link to a complex PDF that might give more illumination on this phenomenon.
http://www-physics.lbl.gov/~stapp/BCC.pdf
You are in the vast minority. Pretty much every single scientist of any stripe states that the "technological singularity" will occur within 100 years at most. Me, I think it's going to be less than 20, judging by today's trends. Long before that (100 years I mean), AI, robotics and automation will fundamentally and permanently change human civilization. I think one of the reasons that governments and politics exist is because people are no damn good. We hate the "other" deeply, cheerfully and murderously. If we think we can get away with it we cheat, steal or kill. Interestingly today I am seeing a small, but clearly growing trend towards ridding ourselves of gender. That struck me as odd, but whatever. You can see that in the news right now. When I am online I am neither male nor female, I am simply intellect and words. But the behavior and pattern of those words will reveal my gender, if not my biological sexual assignment. And potentially, the depth of my ignorance lol! What I am trying to say is, I believe that we want to engineer a human intelligence 2.0. A side effect of such intelligence would quickly render many of societies institutions irrelevant or obsolete. Perhaps religion and spirituality. That, lamentably seems to be shrinking in importance as well. Is it all for the better? I'm doubtful, but I could be proven wrong.
The tricky part is trying to guess what is going to happen more than 50 years from now. For that I have to rely on how history seems to demonstrate a "telescoping" of technological innovations from the beginning of human history to today. Here again is a link to something concerning that I wrote quite a while back.
https://www.reddit.com/Futurology/comments/4k8q2b/is_the_singularity_a_religious_doctrine_23_apr_16/d3d0g44/
How could we have imagined the laser in the year 1900? Or AI. Or CRISPR-Cas9. Or nuclear fission/fusion. How much theoretical research or fundamental science existed for these things? Or something as fundamental as a transistor. I don't think there was even vacuum tubes in 1900, were there?
You state that we have picked all the low hanging fruit and we are getting decreasing returns for our efforts. I say no. The computer is going to change everything, perhaps all of existence and reality into information science. Today we talk of the impending exa-scale computer arriving about 2019-2022. Do you believe that we shall have peaked? No way. Humans won't be stopped. Rather than the returns decreasing they are increasing. Exponentially. I read that in the last two year we have produced more information and knowledge than all of human history up to the last 2 years! A good deal of this is vast data (big data) that has yet to be parsed for actionable knowledge. But already we can use "big data" plus unimaginably fast processing speeds to enable my IPhone to use "Google Translate" when my IPhone is not even connected to the internet! An astonishing display of narrow AI might. In the year 2015 I had no AI apps on my IPhone.
I hafta go do another xray. brb.
permalinksavecontextfull comments (59)editdelete
2017's Most Mind-Boggling Futuristic Tech by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 6 months ago
Oh no! I put the wrong link in for the video I wanted you to see!
Here is the correct link!
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MRG8eq7miUE
permalinksavecontextfull comments (21)editdelete
2017's Most Mind-Boggling Futuristic Tech by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 6 months ago
Oh no! I put the wrong link in for the video I wanted you to see!
Here is the correct link!
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MRG8eq7miUE
permalinksavecontextfull comments (21)editdelete
Free vending machines for homeless people are coming to the U.S. in 2018 by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] 0 points 6 months ago
No it needs to be for everybody once the AI, robotics and automation make it necessary. I give it about 3 years.
The truck drivers will be the first to feel the impact.
https://www.reddit.com/Futurology/comments/7mno8s/less_than_5_of_indias_techies_are_ready_fodrv9b6s/
permalinksavecontextfull comments (49)editdelete
NASA Planning Mission to Alpha Centauri—in 2069 by johnmountain in Futurology


[–]izumi3682 1 point 6 months ago
You make excellent points. What do you think of this idea..?
https://www.reddit.com/Futurology/comments/7gpqnx/why_human_race_has_immortality_in_its_grasp/dqku50e/
permalinksavecontextfull comments (59)editdelete
Free vending machines for homeless people are coming to the U.S. in 2018 by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] 2 points 6 months ago
Like I said, post-scarcity basics rather than UBI or ineffectual "programs".
permalinksavecontextfull comments (49)editdelete
Free vending machines for homeless people are coming to the U.S. in 2018 by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] 2 points 6 months ago
You can find that out by using Google. I'm sure it can break it all down for you.
But I will say this. Great Britain is really a tiny place with a proportionately small population. I almost fell over when I read that figure. It turns out that homelessness is one of the most overwhelming societal problems in Great Britain today.
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/nov/08/one-in-every-200-people-in-uk-are-homeless-according-to-shelter
permalinksavecontextfull comments (49)editdelete
Free vending machines for homeless people are coming to the U.S. in 2018 by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] 6 points 6 months ago
Just a quick snapshot. These are most recent figures available.
103,000 homeless in France.
48,000 homeless in Italy.
200,000 homeless in Germany.
250,000 homeless in Great Britain.
permalinksavecontextfull comments (49)editdelete
Free vending machines for homeless people are coming to the U.S. in 2018 by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] 17 points 6 months ago
Those are going to be mostly empty and broken most of the time. It's a noble concept, but it will never work in practice. Plus by the very nature of homelessness, a large percentage of homeless will never ever have access to this. Roughly 700 homeless human beings fall between the cracks of society and die of exposure in the USA each year. There is rarely any news, unlike a fellow who died in a dumpster the other day. He did make the news.
https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/dec/28/amazon-dumpster-death-homeless-man-frank-ryan
The "street" is a vicious, merciless, insane place. Life is harsh, brutish and short. The average age of death, 55. We need post-scarcity basics as soon as humanly possible. Decent individual shelter, electricity, food, water, internet, medical--all medical and reasonable entertainment or education.
One individual has 42 billion dollars locked up. 500,000 US citizens are homeless.
permalinksavecontextfull comments (49)editdelete
NASA Planning Mission to Alpha Centauri—in 2069 by johnmountain in Futurology


[–]izumi3682 5 points 6 months ago
Well, I will be 109 and hopefully age reversed to about 21 years in biomarker youthfulness and crazy nano/AI-augmented to boot. So all good! But seriously we may have drives that can just run us there in a year or two by then.
2069 is simply too far into the future to be able to predict a thing with any hope of accuracy.
permalinksavecontextfull comments (59)editdelete
WHO to recognize gaming disorder as mental health condition by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] 0 points 6 months ago
You are going to live in your own worlds. You are not going to want to leave. This is the whole premise of "Ready, Player One". It (VR) will become far more important than reality as the tech ever improves. Sure a movies resolution leaves something to be desired, but I can watch a movie in 3D like I have glasses on in a theater, yet the image is still brilliantly lit. When the resolution improves, I prophesy the movie theater will go the way of the buggy whip. Not just because of VR, but also because of wall sized 8K screens that are paper thin and allow you glasses free 3D. Nothing is in a vacuum here. All technologies synergize each other.
permalinksavecontextfull comments (15)editdelete
Teen girls feel 'bombarded' by requests for nude photos - A bad trend that is going to get worse by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] -2 points 6 months ago
I have to add a comment here, because I have often discussed society and perspective for a long time.
One of the perspectives I offer is that society is a far safer place today than it was in the 20th century when we used to kill each other off by the tens of millions at a time. But this new technology is like playing with fire. I don't mean the AI taking over. I mean the deleterious effects such technology is having on the psyche and personality of humanity. The increasing number of humans choosing to live alone, because they are self-sufficient now. The airport waiting area with every single person engrossed in their mobiles or laptops. Zero conversation. I've seen it. You can see it yourself in any restaurant. Humans are becoming self sufficient islands that care nothing for other humans. Yes, certainly families and good people abound. But those number are steadily dwindling. The triumph of the coarse "troll and griefer" personality online is yet another worrisome sign of the times. Don't believe me? Go take a look at a Washington Post comment section for any story it printed. And Fox has it's own detractors I'm sure.
I see us turning into an increasingly fragmented, balkanized, self-centered, hedonistic and worst of all amoral society. I don't mean good vs. evil. I mean the inability to distinguish between good and evil. Adolescent sexting is just another bad sign.
One good light I have seen lately is the "societal correction" of exposing longterm predators and harrassers to light. I'm not sure if that is a flash in the pan fad or not yet. I see it difficult to sustain such a momentum, but we shall see I guess.
Was society better in say, 1955? "Tremendously better yes!" "No!! It was tremendously worse!" It depends on your socio-economic status, gender and race. The world continues on and we progress regardless. But how shall we solve our new-fangled "modern problems" now? Some of this seems a bit intractable to me. How do you promote 'values' if you have none yourself?
BTW the AI is going to take over.
permalinksavecontextfull comments (45)editdelete
WHO to recognize gaming disorder as mental health condition by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 6 months ago
Games? Seriously, that's all you think VR is good for? The resolution is going improve, the FOV is going to improve, the content is going to improve and the hmds will be tetherless and featherweight.
Read this.
https://www.reddit.com/Futurology/comments/6h7xtt/gamers_arent_buying_the_vr_hype_and_game_makers/diw60gy/
permalinksavecontextfull comments (15)editdelete
Less than 5% of India's techies are ready for higher end AI and cloud computing work by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] 12 points 6 months ago
Just out of curiosity I looked up on Google how many USA citizens are verified truck drivers. The number is 3.5 million.
It used to be that to evolve a farmer into a factory worker took about a generation. 25 years or so. The farmer did not become the factory worker, his son or grandson did.
We don't have the luxury of that kind of time any longer. This is not 25 years. It's more like five years. The article states that humans that are already "techies" in India's economy cannot handle such higher intellect vocations. So what chance does a trucker have? I don't think they can all become PSRs (personal service representatives) or coders. In addition the type of personality that fits the truck driving lifestyle is probably not "attitudinally compatible" with such employ. Plus I suspect PSR's and coders are going to be replaced fairly soon as well.
I don't see a thing about UBI or post-scarcity things for free. The US government believes that retraining should work. But I don't think it will for the reasons stated above.
Anyway it's a worrisome trend and I don't think I am being irrational or alarmist here. The USA government agrees.
https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/documents/Artificial-Intelligence-Automation-Economy.PDF
permalinksavecontextfull comments (3)editdelete
2017's Most Mind-Boggling Futuristic Tech by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 6 months ago
These end of the year things just never fail to tickle me, because the implication is that this is all as good as it gets! My God, just imagine what the closing year of 2018 will trumpet. And then 2019. And then, seriously, it just gets too crazy to even be able to accurately predict any longer.
In say, 1974 we had a pretty good idea of technology in the year 1979. It's not like that any more. The exponential upward curve is clearly evident now. More than anything, this could be heaven or hell for the bulk of human society. Hopefully heaven for my sake or I will be dead.
When considering the future of technology, particularly AI in its many potential forms just watch this 2013 demonstration of computer processing power and capacity. Pay no attention to the comparison between the human brain and the computer. The computer will rocket past the human brain effortlessly. Rather watch the power and speed of what is coming in the next couple of years. Pause the video at the year 2015--that's the year we all started to hear about the new CNN narrow AI. That's it. Just a shade over 2 years ago! And bear in mind that the video stops at the year 2025. The exponential improvement does not. And that is not even taking into account the distinct possibility of exploiting quantum computers to do classical binary computer problems and simulations. No we have not figured that out yet as of today, but we are a clever species and I'm sure we will sooner than later. Ergo the crazy talk of the impending "technological singularity" in a decade or so.
Just imagine! "Crysis" will at long last have the resolution and frame rate that it's creators intended...
Anyway, here is the video.
https://www.pcmag.com/feature/358115/2017-s-most-mind-boggling-futuristic-tech
permalinksavecontextfull comments (21)editdelete
WHO to recognize gaming disorder as mental health condition by izumi3682 in Futurology


[–]izumi3682[S] 6 points 6 months ago
Boy, just wait until the VR addictions start pouring in. It will make the gaming disorder look like a common cold. I 'spect around 2019 the societal VR problems will ensue.
Yes, the technology will be that good. OMG! I can't wait!
permalinksavecontextfull comments (15)editdelete
We've Been Burying People All Wrong - Could eco-friendly funerals save the planet? by MichaelRahmani in Futurology


[–]izumi3682 1 point 6 months ago
You are exactly correct. But it is more about an American "mindset" that is very difficult to alter. I'm sure the parents know the ultimate truth, but want to do everything humanly, humanly possible to put that truth off. The American society and the American funeral industry has simply evolved along those lines. I read a book wayyy back around 1975 called "The American Way of Death". But while the funeral industry is partly to blame for exploiting grief for monetary gain, they are also simply going along with what has also evolved as the way that citizens in the USA have traditionalized death. That along with rigorous legal codes that are inconvenient and unpleasant to circumvent.
permalinksavecontextfull comments (3)editdelete
A lot of people are going to be pissed when they find out their self-driving car wont go 60 in a 55. by sparklingbuttknuckle in Showerthoughts


[–]izumi3682 1 point 6 months ago
Not me. I probably won't even be paying any attention. I'll be dozing or playing my "Switch" or whatever amazing new VR they come out with for SDV travel, special.
permalinksavecontextfull comments (3006)editdelete
We've Been Burying People All Wrong - Could eco-friendly funerals save the planet? by MichaelRahmani in Futurology


[–]izumi3682 2 points 6 months ago
Well, that is what miss Caitlin says. And pragmatically it makes perfect sense. (I highly recommend you subscribe to her channel btw)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWo2-LHwGMM&t=534s
Now let's let the rubber hit that road. Parents lose their 21 year old daughter in a motor vehicle accident. They are devastated and grief-stricken beyond words. They want their daughter preserved pristine forever. They want to think of her as asleep. They do not want to think of her face decomposing and rotting to a grinning skull.
This I think is why the "eco-funeral" is such an uphill struggle in the USA anyways. And there is one more factor. We want to think we are doing our departed "right". So we pour our grief into expensive and as lavish as we can possibly afford, departure ceremonies and the best preservation money can buy. "Sanitized" and "societally acceptable".
Cremation is steadily gaining acceptance in the USA, but by current technology is not precisely "green". It is a big carbon "footprint".
submitted by izumi3682 to u/izumi3682 [link] [comments]


2016.07.22 00:56 Interversity Sex Differences in Machiavellianism

Part 2/? in an ongoing(?) series of posts attempting to establish basic ideas of sex differences. Part 1 here: Sex Differences in Libido
Basic overview of Machiavellianism
[Niccolo Machiavelli] Although historians continue to debate how best to characterize this sixteenth century Florentine writer (Jensen 1960), few dispute the impact of his two most famous works: The Prince (Machiavelli 1513) and Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius (Machiavelli 1531). Indeed, interpretations of these works have resulted in the label Machiavellian becoming a negative epithet, indicating at least an amoral (if not immoral) way of manipulating others to accomplish one's objectives. Although Machiavelli wrote for political leaders in sixteenth century Italy, many analysts believe that his ideas are applicable to modem business managers.
Some writers openly advocate Machiavellian tactics for the top executive who wishes to stay in power. For example. McMurry (1973) recommends that "an executive-politician must: use caution in taking counsel . . . avoid too close superior-subordinate relationships. . . not hesitate to be ruthless when expedient ... limit what is to be communicated. . . learn never to place too much dependence on a subordinate unless it is clearly in the latter's personal advantage to be loyal. . .and give outward evidence of status, power, and material success w (pp. 144-145). Entire treatises apply Machiavellian tactics to management (Jay 1969) and some (controversial) MBA courses specifically teach Machiavellian techniques (Business Week 1975).
This particular trait seems to be harder to study and make definite claims about. Sex drive is relatively straightforward compared to it (wanna fuck?). Machiavellianism and psychological manipulation are much more complex behaviors with confounding variables all over the place. Studies in this area are often in the context of ethics in business practices, which may or may not translate directly to non-commercial interpersonal relationships, and might confound results even further as it seems likely women in any type of high level position are more likely to exhibit Mach behavior (ahem... HRC).
Further, many/most studies on this particular trait have particularly small sample sizes and non-random sampling processes. This is worth keeping in mind before drawing any conclusions.
Ethical Reasoning, Machiavellian Behavior, and Gender: The Impact on Accounting Students' Ethical Decision Making
This research is designed to gain an understanding of how accounting students respond to realistic, business ethical dilemmas. Prior research suggests that accounting students exhibit lower levels of ethical reasoning compared to other business and non-business majors. This study uses the Defining Issues Test, Version 2 (Rest, et al., 1999) to measure accounting students ethical reasoning processes. The Mach IV scale (Christie and Geis, 1970) is used to measure moral behavior. Eight ethical vignettes adapted from prior ethics studies represent realistic, business ethical scenarios. A total of sixty-eight undergraduate accounting students are used to examine three hypotheses. Literature suggests that individuals with lower ethical reasoning levels are more likely to agree with unethical behavior. Therefore, hypothesis one investigates the relationship between ethical reasoning and ethical decision making. Literature also suggests that individuals agreeing with Machiavellian statements are more likely to agree with questionable activities. Hypothesis two investigates the relationship between Machiavellian behavior and ethical decision making. Prior gender literature suggests that gender influences ethical decision making, with females being more ethical than males. Therefore, hypothesis three examines whether female accounting students agree less with questionable activities compared to males. Results indicate that ethical reasoning is significantly correlated with students ethical ratings on the business vignettes. Similarly, Machiavellian behavior is significantly correlated with students ethical ratings. Consistent with prior gender literature, females agree less with questionable activities compared to male accounting students.
Achievement and Machiavellianism among Men and Women Managers
Mehrabian's achievement scale and the Mach IV were administered to 51 male and 51 female managers. No significant differences were obtained for the Mach scores between groups, but the women scored significantly higher than the men on achievement. Moreover, those respondents who scored very high on Mach tended significantly to score low on achievement. (!) The reverse relationship was not found.
Machiavellianism and Job Satisfaction of Retailing Executives in a Specialty Store Chain
The Mach IV scale and the Job Descriptive Index were administered to 60 managers of specialty stores. Female store managers scored significantly higher on the Mach IV scale, and no significant differences were observed between men and women on the five subscales of the Job Descriptive Index. A significant relation for women was observed between Machiavellianism and satisfaction with opportunities for promotion. This was the only significant finding of 15 regression analyses examining the relations between Machiavellianism and job satisfaction for the entire sample, for men and for women.
Job Satisfaction and Machiavellian Orientation among Department Store Executives
The Mach IV scale and the Index of Job Satisfaction were administered to 218 department store executives. Female executives scored significantly higher on the Mach IV scale and significantly lower on the Index of Job Satisfaction than male executives. A significant negative correlation was observed between Machiavellianism and Job Satisfaction for the entire sample, for men and for women.
Contrary finding to the previous study wherein there was no significant difference between men and women managers in Mach score.
Machiavellianism and sexuality: on the moderating role of biological sex
We examined via self-report relations between Machiavellianism (MACH), sexual attitudes and a variety of sexual behaviors, including a willingness to force sexual acts on another in the absence of culpability. As predicted, MACH is associated with an open, promiscuous and hostile set of sexual attitudes. In addition, MACH is associated with a variety of self-serving and deceptive sexual tactics such as cheating, divulging intimate sexual secrets to third parties, and both feigning love and inducing intoxication to secure sex. MACH is also positively associated with an expressed willingness to force others into sexual acts in the absence of culpability. However, many of these relationships are moderated by participant sex. As would be predicted by either biological or socialization based accounts of sexuality, these relationships are attenuated or absent for the female participants. The discussion focuses on the nature of MACH sexuality, and how this differs in men and women.
Social Perception as a Function of Machiavellianism
Using a hypothetical situation describing a stimulus person who succeeds or fails to win a desired promotion through merit or influence, we tested the hypotheses that greater ethical sensitivity in their evaluation of the stimulus person would be displayed by low compared with high Machiavellians and by female compared with male subjects. The experiment employed a 2 × 2 × 2× 2 (Subject's Machiavellanism × Subject's Sex × Stimulus Person's Merit vs. Influence × Stimulus Person's Success vs. Failure) factorial design, with 10 subjects per cell. The dependent measures were ratings of the stimulus person on intelligence, morality, and likability. The stimulus person with merit was rated more favorably on all three dimensions than the person with influence. Female subjects showed a greater ethical sensitivity in their evaluations compared with male subjects. The expectation that low would show greater ethical sensitivity than high Machiavellians was supported only in the case of female subjects; a somewhat opposite finding was obtained in the case of male subjects.
On Different Relationships between Dogmatism and Machiavellianism among Male and Female College Students
A brief dogmatism scale and the Kiddie Machiavellianism Scale were answered by 112 male and 83 female students. The men's Mach scores were higher than the women's. The correlation between dogmatism and Mach— was not significant in either sex; in contrast, the correlation between dogmatism and Mach+ was significant for both sexes, r being significantly greater for the women than for the men. Agreement response set therefore seemed to be involved in the correlations between these scales for both sexes, though more for the women than the men. Factor by factor correlations indicated that for the men, the main other overlap between these two scales was an unflattering view of people, as hypothesized by Christie and Geis; for the women, however, the overlap between the scales was more extensive. The interpretation of this sex difference suggested the possibility that women may be more Machiavellian than their scores suggest and may even be more Machiavellian than men, though their scores typically suggest the opposite.
Marketing and Machiavellianism
Younger marketers are more Machiavellian than older marketers, and singles are more Machiavellian than marrieds. Nevertheless, several of our findings directly contradict either the research findings of previous writers or their speculations. Sex was a significant predictor of Machiavellianism: women were more Machiavellian than men. This finding is inconsistent with most studies. which generally show women to score lower in Machiavellianism than men. The regression results also show, contrary to the findings of Wenhiem, Widom, and Wortzel (1978), that marketers who majored as undergraduates in business administration are not more Machiavellian than marketers who majored in other areas. Similarly, contrary to previous research and speculation, neither education nor size of firm was a significant predictor of Machiavellianism. That is, marketers who are more highly educated are not more Machiavellian and neither are those who work for smaller companies. Finally, there were no significant differences relating to the kinds of jobs that marketers hold. Marketers in sales and advertising positions were not more Machiavellian than marketers in marketing research or staff positions. Taken in total, the results suggest that marketers who are high in Machiavellianism have a tendency to be younger, single, and female.
This paper in particular is pretty accessible in terms of readability, so if you're looking to actually read through a full paper, I'd go for this one.
Identifying the Prevalence of the “Dark Triad” Personality Traits in Law Students: Eradicating an Unwarranted Stereotype
The personalities of lawyers are often categorized to be immoral, at least more so than those of other professionals. An abundance of literature parallels this generalization and depicts lawyers’ personalities as narcissistic, psychopathic and high in Machiavellian attitudes. Together, these three traits form the “Dark Triad” of personality. 53 law students from 3 law schools in Ontario completed a survey measuring their levels on the “Dark Triad” traits. Furthermore, each participant revealed their gender, year of study, and the field of law they aspired to enter. Results show that the law students from the present sample do not display any “Dark Triad” trait significantly greater than the general population. Furthermore, it found that male law students were not significantly “darker” than female law students, on average. However, 1st year law students were found to score significantly higher on the narcissism trait than both second and third-year students. There were no other significant differences between the students in different years of schooling. Lastly, those wishing to enter criminal law scored significantly higher on the Machiavellianism trait than those wishing to enter tax law. No other fields of law differed significantly on any of the three traits. These findings suggest that law students, and perhaps lawyers themselves, are not deserving of the pejorative stereotype assigned to them. Furthermore, it suggests that male law students are no more responsible for the assigned stereotype than females. Next, the present research implies that law school, or perhaps the aging process, may actually serve to reduce the narcissism trait suggested to be present in law students. Finally, the research proposes that those aspiring to enter criminal law may be more responsible for the assigned stereotype whereas those aspiring to enter tax law experience the most apparent wrongful stereotyping.
Multivariate analysis of male and female professional career choice correlates.
Personality, aptitude, achievement, and social-demographic characteristics of graduate students in 4 professional degree programs were investigated in a comparative multivariate analysis of the correlates of professional career choice. 173 male and 175 female 1st-yr graduate students in 2 traditionally male fields (law and management) and 2 traditionally female fields (education and social work) completed an extensive questionnaire. Results confirmed the central hypothesis of the study: Differences across careers for each variable were greater than differences between the sexes within careers. In contrast to previous findings, no significant sex differences were found in assertiveness, locus of control, or Machiavellianism. Sex differences were primarily confined to the variables relating to psychological masculinity–femininity and sex role attitudes. The limitations of the current design are noted, and it is stressed that these findings are correlational in nature. Preexisting dispositions and attitudes may be the best predictors of professional career choice, although it is equally possible that these attitudes and attributes are adopted after people have made their career choices (i.e., during graduate school).
Deception in disclosing one's sexual history: Safe‐sex avoidance or ignorance?
As previously mentioned, there are two types of lies relevant to this research (a) a lie of omission, where the liar chooses not to disclose information, and (b) a lie of commission, where the liar chooses to alter information. In this sample, both types of lies occurred. Lie of omission. As Table 2 illustrates, over 32% percent of the students who were sexually active (« = 99) said that they omitted telling at least one of their previous sexual partners about their sexual history. In addition, over 17% of the sexually active students omitted telling all of their partners about their sexual history (n = 53). There were no gender differences for these findings. Lie of commission. Overall, 24% of the sexually active students had misrepresented their sexual history to a sexual partner (« = 75). As might be expected from previous research (Stebleton & Rothenberger, 1993), men were significantly more likely to lie about their numbers of previous sexual partners than were women.
Not related directly to Machiavellianism, but I found it in the course of my searching and thought it was interesting and relevant to our interests.
MACHIAVELLIANISM AND DATING: DECEPTION AND INTIMACY
We explored the relationship between Machiavellian personality, mate attraction strategies, and intimacy. Participants filled out the Mach IV and self-report questionnaires about the use of deceptive tactics in attracting potential dating partners, level of intimacy, and previous dating history. Higher scores on Machiavellianism were associated with greater likelihood of using deceptive tactics and lower levels of relationship intimacy. However, for women the relationship between Machiavellianism and deceptive strategies was moderated by the history of intimate behaviors. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Consistent with our prediction, and regardless of gender, we found a strong association between Machiavellian tendencies, and the use of deceptive mating strategies. Individuals scoring high on the Machiavellian scale were willing to engage more freely in deceptive behaviors than individuals scoring lower on the scale as predicted by Wilson et al. (1996). Whether or not these manipulative behaviors may promote the attributes that are perceived as attractive or desirable, and/or whether or not the use of deceptive tactics indirectly (e.g., particularly, in how they are perceived by others) leads to more effective mating outcomes has yet to be demonstrated.
Further, an interesting pattern of results emerged regarding gender differences in the way in which Machiavellianism relates to mating behavior. Overall, there was no difference between men and women for the use of DMS, but higher order interactions suggested a more complex relationship. For men, there was a consistent relationship between Mach and DMS. Furthermore, there was an independent effect for HIB on DMS, so that the higher the score on the Machiavellian scale and the greater the number of past relationships, the more deceptive strategies were likely to be reported. In contrast, for women, the relationship between Mach and deceptive strategies was moderated by history of intimate behaviors. Among women, lower levels of HIB (fewer past relationships) yielded a stronger association between Mach and deceptive strategies. However, at higher levels of HIB (more past relationships), there was less of an association between Mach and DMS. In other words, among women who scored high on the Machiavellian scale, those with fewer past relationships were more likely to use deceptive strategies than were those with more past relationships. It appears as though for women, prior relationship experience dampened the tendency of a woman with a Machiavellian personality to use deception in mating behaviors. (!!!)
All I have to say is !!
Emotional intelligence, Machiavellianism and emotional manipulation: Does EI have a dark side?
Associations of Machiavellianism (Mach) with self-report and performance emotional intelligence (EI) and with personality were examined. The possible existence of an emotional manipulation capability, not covered within current EI measures, was also examined by constructing an emotional manipulation scale. Mach was found to be negatively correlated with self-report and performance EI, and also with Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Emotional manipulation was positively correlated with Mach but unrelated to EI. Thus high Machs endorse emotionally-manipulative behaviour, although the extent to which they are successful in this behaviour, given the negative Mach/EI association, remains to be established.
And we know that women are higher in EI, and higher in Agreeableness, although only higher in certain aspects of Conscientiousness (ibid), which would seem to suggest that they would have lower Mach scores on average.
Age-Related Differences in Machiavellianism in an Adult Sample
Researchers who administer Machiavellianism scales to respondents frequently report on the presence or absence of sex differences in Mach scores, and findings are clearly mixed. Some studies support the position that women are less Machiavellian than men are (11), while others detect the opposite pattern (6). Still others find no evidence of sex differences in Mach scores (18).
The reference above (11) is to the study below. Reference (6) refers to the study up a ways, titled "Job Satisfaction and Machiavellian Orientation among Department Store Executives." I cannot for the life of me find reference (18) despite seeing it referred to multiple times during my search, but I feel comfortable accepting this author's assertion that it found no evidence of difference.
On the relationship between Machiavellianism and anxiety among Italian undergraduates.
Mach scores from all subjects gave a mean of 84.36 (SD = 13.59). As expected, men had significantly higher Mach scores than women.
MACHIAVELLIANISM AND LOCUS OF CONTROL AMONG INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM GAME PLAYERS.pdf)
The purpose of the study was to compare the Machiavellianism and locus of control among intercollegiate level individual and team game players. The present study was conducted on 120 players, playing at intercollegiate level (Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-Maharashtra) by purposive sampling method. 60 players were individual game players (30 male players and 30 female players), and 60 players were team game players (30 male players and 30 female players). The data were collected through Machiavellianism scale (Rai & Gupta, 1982) and locus of control scale (Hasnain & Joshi, 1982). The Mean, SD and univariate two way ANOVA was applied to assess the differences between individual and team game players. Results revealed that team game players and male players are more Machiavellian oriented than individual game players and female players respectively. No significant difference is found between individual and team game players in terms of their locus of control. But, it has been found that male players are internally oriented than female players.
The Construct of Machiavellianism: Twenty years Later
This is a review of the literature from 1971-1987. It is also highly accessible as far as research papers go; 10/10 would recommend
A stereotyped view of the high Mach suggests that he or she would prefer a business career. Consistent with the stereotype, subjects faking Machiavellianism prefer business-related occupations whereas helping professions are least preferred (Skinner et al., 1976). Research on actual career choices points to the same conclusion. For example, Wertheim, Widom, and Wortzel (1978) found that law and management students had the highest Mach scores, followed by education students. Social work students had the lowest scores. Steininger and Eisenberg (1976) found that business students scored higher on Machiavellianism than did English and Sociology students. Chonko (1982) also reported that purchasing managers were more Machiavellian than other groups in the literature.
Are Machiavellians successful in their chosen professions? Christie (1970c) was surprised when a national survey revealed that high Machs did not have more prestigious jobs or higher incomes than low Machs. Similarly, Turnbull (1976) found no relation between Machiavellianism and success measured by sales productivity. Touhey (1973) also failed to find an overall relation between Machiavellianism and social mobility (assessed as the discrepancy between one's father's and one's own socioeconomic status) in a sample of men from a variety of occupational settings. However, when subjects' IQ scores were taken into account, greatest social mobility was found for the high Mach-high IQ group; lowest mobility was found in the high Mach-low IQ group. Based on this finding, Turner and Martinez (1977) reexamined Christie's survey data and found that education had a similar moderating effect. For men with above-average education, there was a significant positive relation between Machiavellianism and occupational attainment (salary, job prestige); for men with below-average education, a significant negative relation was found. For women, Machiavellianism and occupational status were positively correlated. (Note, however, that only 26% of the female subjects held positions that were classifiable in terms of occupational status.)
One of the earliest papers on Machiavellianism examined the relation between Mach scores and academic success. Singer (1964) conducted a number of studies and found low to moderate correlations between Mach V scores and GPA. The correlations were lower for women than for men, leading Singer to speculate that it may be not be socially acceptable for women to use direct manipulation to obtain good grades; instead, women might use "strategies of attractiveness and appearance rather than deceit and management" (p. 140). Ames and Kidd (1979) suggested that the weak relation between women's GPA and Mach V scores in Singer's studies might best be accounted for in terms of gender-role orientation rather than gender per se. Based on the fear of success literature, they suggested that feminine-typed women might "manipulate to prevent themselves from appearing overly successful academically" (p. 224). They expected and found no overall relation between Mach scores and GPA. For feminine-typed women (as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory), the correlation was - .64; for masculine-typed women, the correlation was .61. The authors acknowledge that there are many possible interpretations for these findings. For example, it is unclear whether feminine Machiavellian women are using manipulation to reduce their grades or are simply rejecting the use of manipulative tactics. The data do suggest that masculine-typed Machiavellian women may be willing to use manipulation to get good grades.
Okay, that's a lot of text. My (unscientific) interpretations are that the literature is not conclusive by any stretch on the question of whether men or women are, on the whole, more Machiavellian. Multiple studies suggest men are higher, multiple suggest women are higher, multiple find little to no difference, and many of these studies are highly limited in nature. An evo psych perspective would assume that women would be higher Mach as they do not have access to physical violence as a form of social control, but this appears to be unfounded, although we can't be sure that the Mach IV test is a completely reliable indicator of psychological manipulation in terms of social control.
This leads me to reject the RP belief that women are more Machiavellian than men, as the evidence is at best inconclusive, combined with the fact that multiple studies found the opposite.
In less academic terms, I have suspected this was false for some time due to the discrepancy between RP stating that women stop maturing earlier than men, that women are less intelligent, that women are like children, etc. but also that they are more Machiavellian in nature, a trait which is highly complex and requires significant mental effort and ability to harness usefully.
Edit: Sleeping willow beat me to the punch by about 3 months :) Gender differences in Machiavellianism and manipulative tactics in relationships.
Edit 2: Surprising lack of circlejerk when the literature doesn't support the RP view huh ;P
submitted by Interversity to PurplePillDebate [link] [comments]