2019.12.01 07:41 fre3thenipple Getting free and enlivening your Spirit within
The pneumatics ("spiritual", from Greek πνεῦμα, "spirit") were, in Gnosticism, the highest order of humans, the other two orders being psychics and hylics ("matter"). A pneumatic saw itself as escaping the doom of the material world via the transcendent knowledge of Sophia's Divine Spark within the soul. ...― Wikipedia
In the New Testament a contrast is made between the psychikoi and the pneumatikoi, in the former of whom the mere animal soul predominates, the latter exhibiting the working of a higher spiritual nature (Jude 19; 1 Cor. 2:14–15; compare also 15:44–46). In the Valentinian system this contrast is sharpened, and is made to depend on an original difference of nature between the two classes of men, a mythical theory being devised which professed to account for the origin of the different elements in men's nature; the psychic element being something higher and better than the mere material element, but immeasurably inferior to the pneumatic. It may well be believed that in the language of the Gnostic sects, the "pneumatici" are "spiritual men who have attained to the perfect knowledge of God, and been initiated into these mysteries by Achamoth" herself (Adv. Haer. I. 6, 1), ordinary Christians being branded as "psychici."
The sickness of materialism was called hyleticism (worship of matter) by the Gnostics, while the sickness of abstract intellectualism and moralizing was known as psychism (worship of the mind-emotional soul). The true role of the facilitators of wholeness in this world, among whom Jesus occupied the place of honor, is that they can exorcise these sicknesses by bringing knowledge of the pneuma (spirit) to the soul and mind.― gnosis.org
Wernicke's area on the right side. ... Would these patients hear some vestiges of the ancient divinities? Here are some representative data. When stimulated in this region, Case 7, a twenty-year-old college student, cried out, "Again I hear voices, I sort of lost touch with reality. Humming in my ears and a small feeling like a warning." And when stimulated again, "Voices, the same as before. I was just losing touch with reality again." When asked, he replied that he could not understand what the voices were saying. They sounded "hazy."Example archetypes are: The Beast, The Warrior, The Hero, The Fallen Hero, The Self, The Angel, God. You must progress through the more primitive, ancient basic archetypes and integrate what they mean and activate them properly to come to a better more complete Self. Your Self cannot become complete without settling or resolving all the opposites of all the tenacities, obstacles and problems of all of the universal nature of life.
Unconscious: a topographical term for the unknown process of the psyche. The unconscious is unconscious only to the ego–we don’t know if it is actually that way.
Archetypes want to return to life, to be shaped in conscious life, to pour energy outward.
All of us inherit the same archetypes, the same invisible patterns or motifs built, like emotions, into the structure of the human psyche, but they manifest in personal and cultural experiences. Examples include the Hero, the Divine Child, the Great Mother, Transformation, Death, and Rebirth. The most important are the shadow, anima/animus, Wise Old Man/Wise Woman, and the Self, all nonpersonal, bipolar vessels extending up into the personal unconscious. Also, archetypes interpenetrate and are hard to tell apart.
Archetypes manifest in myths, dreams, tribal lore, fairy tales, visions, isms, scientific advances, numbers, religions, philosophies, historical developments, and schizophrenic hallucinations. Ultimately, they also drive individuation and provide a counterpole (the “violet end”) to instinct (the psyche’s “red end”): image and its dynamism. Instinct is felt physiologically and experienced as numinous images that seem to contrast to mere bodily sensations and mechanisms; so archetypes are instincts “raised to a high frequency,” just as instincts emanate from an archetype’s “low frequency.” Just as instincts impel toward behavior, the archetypes impel toward certain kinds of perceptions.
The primordial images are the true force that shapes and channels instinct.The most important and central archetype is the Self. You will need to come to terms with all aspects and parts (components) of your personality in order to progress to true self knowledge. This partly concerns revealing yourself through others (relationships, friendships, encounters, arguments, dissonance) and it partly concerns inward, introverted investigation; it concerns intuition and thinking and reasoning. The ultimate connection with your soul is about being able to draw (in conscious waking life) unconscious contents that serve you in any which way your interest wanes.
Archetypal image: forms out of personal experiences and is the “visible” aspect of the permanently irrepresentable archetype. When an archetype constellates in a situation of need, it gathers associational material, which renders it visible and so capable of conscious realization. Archetypes want to return to life, to be shaped in conscious life, to pour energy outward. When their old forms wear out, the motifs cranked out by the collective unconscious always need new forms connecting them to contemporary consciousness, lest we find ourselves sundered from instinct.
Some archetypes: life after death; the Hero (which developed from the primitive symbolism of light and who sacrifices himself voluntarily because he’s an infant longing for mother); the Divine Child; the Mother; the maiden; rebirth (rituals for which evoke mother symbols to direct incestuous libido away from regression and toward new forms); crucifixion (=suspension of ego between the opposites) on a wheel; the hostile brothers; the Golden Age; initiation; the first ten numbers; the quaternity; the fifth (four plus nonego center), the father; the mother; the parents; the family; the syzygy; the Self (which includes all the archetypes); the witch; the coniunctio; the earth-mother; the sacrifice (which is an unconscious transformation of libido: beloved objects are given up so libido can flow into new forms); energy; its conservation; the sun; the moon; the prophet; the disciple; the horse; the archetypes of transformation (places, ways, and means); duplication; the dead who don’t know they are spirits (ghosts).
Self:So, you have a Self which is both the center and the whole of your psyche. What is a psyche?
The Self image of wholeness provides a new interpretation/container for traditional and worn-out symbols.
- The central, organizing, governing archetype of the collective unconscious and template for the ego. It contains all the other archetypes. The nucleus of the psyche (central fire). It’s the archetype of growth. Its physiological aspect Jung thought could be located in the brainstem.
- The entire psyche, conscious and unconscious.
- An unconscious prefiguration (blueprint) of the ego. Both a mirror of the subjective ego and a reflection of the whole psyche.
Some of its qualities: unitemporal vs. eternal, unique vs. universal.
Images symbolizing the Self tend to appear during times of inward disorganization or after work on the Wise Old Man/Wise Woman archetypes (which are a second liberation from the parent of their gender). Many of the symbols are quaternities. Conscious contact with the nonego Self, an archetype also known as the God-image, is the highest goal of individuation. In that dialog, ego is to Self as planet is to its sun and feels itself contained in the Self. Whether God (or Goddess) lives behind the psychological image is unknown because the psyche filters every experience.
Psyche: a spiritual/imaginal/somatic spectrum; a system that can’t be studied by dividing into parts like instincts and drives. It is also autonomous and not reducible to simpler systems. A psychic fact only makes sense when we see its position in the whole that influences it.What is the Collective Unconscious?
The psyche is REAL, imaginal rather than imaginary. It has both physical and psychic properties, archetypes and more mental processes at the “top”–this pole has far more energy than its counterpart–and instinct and mechanical systems at the “bottom,” which are two aspects of the same thing and between which energy flows. The spiritual pole is dynamic, the other material. One never reduces to the other.
Objective psyche: the collective unconscious.
I was in a house I did not know, which had two storeys. It was "my house". I found myself in the upper storey, where there was a kind of salon furnished with fine old pieces in Rococo style. On the walls hung a number of precious old paintings. I wondered that this should be my house and thought "not bad". But then it occurred to me that I did not know what the lower floor looked like. Descending the stairs, I reached the ground floor. There everything was much older. I realised that this part of the house must date from about the fifteenth or sixteenth century. The furnishings were mediaeval, the floors were of red brick. Everywhere it was rather dark. I went from one room to another thinking "now I really must explore the whole house." I came upon a heavy door and opened it. Beyond it, I discovered a stone stairway that led down into a cellar. Descending again, I found myself in a beautifully vaulted room which looked exceedingly ancient. Examining the walls, I discovered layers of brick among the ordinary stone blocks, and chips of brick in the mortar. As soon as I saw this, I knew that the walls dated from Roman times. My interest by now was intense. I looked more closely at the floor. It was of stone slabs and in one of these I discovered a ring. When I pulled it, the stone slab lifted and again I saw a stairway of narrow stone steps leading down to the depths. These, too, I descended and entered a low cave cut into rock. Thick dust lay on the floor and in the dust were scattered bones and broken pottery, like remains of a primitive culture. I discovered two human skulls, obviously very old, and half disintegrated. Then I awoke.― (Carl Jung's house dream)
The deeper you go, the more collective its contents. The unconscious divides into two layers:In the Collective Unconscious, we are pulled towards concerns of collective unity, collective responsibility (the Superego), patterns within the collective. One goal of consciousness is to become an elevated servant of the Collective Unconscious, as though it has a mind of its own and can inform you (i.e. you become your Higher Self and suspend the lower self).
- Personal (subjective) unconscious: the layer containing subliminal impressions and repressed contents. Filled only with personal life-experiences. Includes the shadow and the inferior function.
- Collective (impersonal, transpersonal, objective) unconscious: an immensely old psyche at the basis of ours, filled with nonpersonal, species-wide, inherited, and permanently unconscious complexes called archetypes and with instincts. Nature doesn’t build from scratch each time (see Koestler). Energy in solid forms from old, like coal mines, but that pours out into active images. The psyche’s equivalent of those (living!) remnants of previous evolutionary stages we carry in our bodies (going all the way back to the earliest organic forms) and so a potential system of adapted functioning. It’s the biological, prehistoric, and unconscious development in archaic man. (Just as human bodies have two eyes, our brains have features in common.) At bottom this psychoid layer fuses with physical processes and (includes) the sympathetic nervous system, which experiences from within as opposed to the cerebrospinal system, which senses outer things and maintains the ego. In fact, Jung thought the sympathetic system a deeper, wider, and more embracing psyche than the cerebrum’s cortical fields and less exposed to the endocrine system. The highest differentiation of the collective unconscious is the ego, a relatively new combination of ancient elements.
The collective unconscious, what Jung also refers to as the ‘transpersonal unconscious’ or ‘objective psyche’ (Jung, 1917, p. 66, fn.4), lies ‘beyond everyday reality,’ yet we are simultaneously ‘in touch with that other reality’ at all times (Kirsh, 2000, p. 256). Joseph Henderson (1964), one of Jung’s early ‘patrons’ of the C.G. Jung Institute in Zurich, describes the collective unconscious as ‘the part of the psyche that retains and transmits the common psychological inheritance of mankind’ (p. 107). In his translation of Jung’s ‘Psychological Commentary’ on the Bardo Tho ̈dol, or The Tibetan Book of the Dead(1957), R.F.C. Hull characterizes the collective unconscious as ‘the matrix of everything’(p. xxxvi), hence lending a cosmic animating principle to the collective psyche, what we may even compare to Plato’s chora, the womb of all becoming. For Jung, the collective unconscious is the Encompassing, the condition and ground of existence, the World Soul (anima mundi).― https://www.processpsychology.com/new-articles2/Jung.pdf
Jung’s philosophy of the collective unconscious presupposes a psychologism at the heart of all metaphysical processes, for, in his words, ‘metaphysical assertions...are statements of the psyche’(1957, p. xxxvii) ultimately rooted in the soul’s (Seele) projections.
And so, it is not our own life that we live, but the lives of the dead, and the soul that dwells within us is no single spiritual entity, making us personal and individual, created for our service, and entering into us for our joy. It is something that has dwelt in fearful places, and in ancient sepulchres has made its abode. It is sick with many maladies, and has memories of curious sins. It is wiser than we are ... It can help us to leave the age in which we were born, and to pass into other ages, and find ourselves not exiled from their air. It can teach us how to escape from our experience, and to realise the experiences of those who are greater than we are.― Oscar Wilde, The Critic as Artist
“What makes human thinking so powerful is that we have this library of concepts that we can use to formulate an effectively infinite number of thoughts,” [Joshua Greene] continued. “Humans can engage in complicated behaviors that, for any other creature on Earth, would require an enormous amount of training. Humans can read or hear a string of concepts and immediately put those concepts together to form some new idea.”― The Harvard Gazette
Compensation: the self-regulatory tendency of the unconscious. When consciousness is too one-sided, the unconscious uses its autonomy to compensate by pushing some of its contents upward in order to reestablish organismic balance. Example: a selfish man (conscious posture) suddenly indulges in an impulsive act of generosity (unconscious counterposition). The compensation is intelligent (if instinctive) rather than mechanical.So, anything you try to force will come acropper for you. You will have an explosion of your repressed mental contents that need to escape and need to be expressed.
Will: the amount of psychic energy at the ego’s disposal. Usually directed into the psychic functions.You need to be engaged in something that interests you; don't hang around inefficient, useless tasks. If you want to access numinous qualities of your Anima/Animus (your soul) - better not hang around unfruitful mental tasks.
All of us have a heavenly version of ourselves, whose job is to perfect the earthly version and make it eligible for immortality. Due to our stubbornness and stupidity, we may not listen to our Higher Self.― Jack Tanner, The Angel Experiment
Mana Personality: anarchetypewith which an inflated ego identifies. Great way to bring on an invasion from the collective unconscious. The term is usually applied to the Wise Old Man archetype.
Shadow: cast by the more individualized ego, it’s the repressed, inferior layer of the personal unconscious. Its contents are emotional and imaginal. All we deny, fear, or hate in ourselves collects in the shadow, which appears in dreams as a frightening figure of the dreamer’s gender (because it’s part of his or her ego). “Realization of the shadow” means growing fully, emotionally conscious of the shadow’s contents, a moral problem evaded by people whose respectable conscious selves deny the shadow and project it into personal, family, or cultural scapegoats. The shadow is often contaminated by inferior function/attitude, anima, etc. identification with the shadow produces a kind of amoral, inflated craziness.
Shadow of the Self: the dark pole of the Self archetype.
Many of the angels that were first assigned to the project to make humans conscious became carnal. They lusted after everything – sex, luxury and power.― Jack Tanner, The Angel Experiment
Classic individuation falls very roughly into four categories, all of which recur and interpenetrate: shadow work, anima/animus work, Wise Old Man/Wise Woman work, and Self work. At each stage the ego integrates the personal aspect of the constellated key archetype; energy from its nonpersonal aspect regresses into the unconscious to activate the next archetype. Individuation is not a road, it’s a spiral around the Self.You have to come to terms with who and what you are, and navigate this accordingly. You have to be prepared to correct yourself, challenge yourself, question every little thing you do and rationalize why you made that decision, then eventually you come to start thinking in syntactical terms rather than semantic terms about yourself.
Individuation begins with guilt and need for expiation due to splitting with conformity, for which the person must give some equivalent: values that help the community.You have to Sublimate your darker desires into aims which deliver you the pleasurable feeling of increasing power by other, elevated means (i.e. towards a higher, spiritual goal). Yet, you can only be interested in things which you can see value in; you cannot generate intrinsic motivation for lost causes and useless ends and diminishing returns. As soon as your unconscious mind has intuited that something is worth little, you want to drop it and this unconscious principle is in fact the organizing principle (minimal waste; law of economy; maximizing of potential, and so on).
Libido: psychological energy (don’t confuse with Freud’s “libido,” an inherently sexual drive energy) that is finalistic and founded not on substances but their relations and movements. Always in advance of consicousness, calling us into new activity. Libido in turn is a part of the life energy that drives all organisms to grow and develop. Its first expression is in the energy of growth that causes cell division, budding, etc. (so it IS sexual at first). As you climb the phylogenetic ladder, libido used for sexuality loses its sexual character and flows into other forms.
Numinosity: the emotional glow or fascination or power an activated archetype inspires in the inner experiences it gathers to itself. Numinous experiences, whether encountered inwardly or outwardly, tell us something essential about ourselves if we study them with care. Rudolf Otto’s term (in his Idea of the Holy) for the mysterious, terrifying, directly experienced, and pertaining only to the divinity.Your very best dreams will be about what your soul itself wants from you. You only get to this stage when you have fully advanced beyond the unclear, more semantically oriented thinking about life, society, the universe and your self.
Soul: the anima/animus.So, the ideal (increasing in divinity with your soul) male and female images are active in the minds of everyone. Just unconsciously. The unconscious contents have to be brought forth, considered, and acted upon. You get a more complete rounding off of your personality in life by engaging in what these unconscious concepts actually mean, and what they do and achieve for you. In this way (visitation) you come to know them; you come to integrate the products of their better parts and natures into your conscious and unconscious self; into your Personal Conscious.
Anima: the feminine component of the unconscious male psyche and inner counterpart to the persona. Possibly she reflects a man’s smaller number of female genes. Ultimately an archetype of Eros and of life itself, this “woman within” functions as a filter, bridge, guide, and mediator between the ego and the deeper layers of the unconscious. As long as she’s not differentiated she stands for the unconscious; later, she stands apart, a daughter to the Wise Old Man who compensates her and sometimes mate of the shadow. Because she carries a man’s “soul” and his “relatedness,” she can be fully realized only with a female partner. “If a man cannot project his anima, then he is cut off from women” (Analytical Psychology).
First projected onto the mother and always mixed with the mother archetype, she usually appears after a man confronts and integrates his shadow. Unless he addresses her as an autonomous personality-fragment and gets to know her, integrating, not her, but her products, he will project her onto an outer woman and confuse the image with the external reality. (Jung didn’t need to consult his anima once he’d learned to read the meaning of his dreams directly, without requiring a mediator, and to accept whatever surfaced from the unconscious. When she vanishes into the unconscious, the collective contents are constellated. The anima seems immortal until she “brings forth”; then she dies.)
Anima images are usually singular (as opposed to animus images) to compensate both the male habit of seeing a mate as one woman among many and the basically male faculty of discrimination, as opposed to the basically female faculty of unifying and synthesizing. (Jung felt that for the collective state to arise, the anima had to be suppressed.)
The anima passes through four stages corresponding with a man’s maturity: Eve, Helen of Troy, Mary, and Sophia.
Animus: the male component of the unconscious female psyche. Like the anima (Eros), but he personifies “spirit” and “intellect” (Logos). His negative aspect gives a woman her irrational convinctions and opinions. He’s usually plural because women focus on one man only in conscious relationships. He also compensates the basic female faculty for unity. He seems to lack the anima’s historical quality and is more concerned with present and future, which Jung saw as a compensation (it’s women who think more about roots, the past, etc.)–but in his deepest qualities he is as history-oriented as the anima.
He evolves through four stages: the physical man, the romantic man or man of action, the bearer of the word, and the wise spiritual guide.
Jung distinguished four broad stages of the anima in the course of a man’s psychological development. He personified these, according to classical stages of eroticism, as Eve, Helen, Mary and Sophia.― https://thirdeve.com/2007/11/01/the-anima/
In the first stage, Eve, the man’s anima is completely tied up with the mother–not necessarily his personal mother, but the image of woman as faithful provider of nourishment, security, and love. The first eve represents all that is natural, instinctual, and biological. The man with an anima of this type cannot function well without a vital connection to a woman and is easy prey to being controlled by her. He frequently suffers impotence or has no sexual desire at all. Other ways in which this type of anima possession manifests are through fear of accidents or disease, or in a sort of dullness of personality. The Greek Sirens or the German Lorelei personify this dangerous aspect of the anima, which may even lead a man to his death. This illustrates what is true of other psychological content, namely that it has two aspects, benevolent and malefic.
In the second stage, personified in the historical figure of Helenof Troy, the anima is a collective sexual image. She is Marilyn Monroe, Madonna, and Angelina Jolie. The man under her spell is often a Don Juan who engages in repeated sexual adventures. These will invariably be short-lived, for two reasons: (1) he has a fickle heart, and (2) no real woman can live up to the expectations that go with this unconscious, ideal image.
The third stage of the anima is Mary, who raises love to the heights of spiritual devotion. It manifests in religious feelings and a capacity for genuine friendship with women. The man with an anima of this kind is able to see a woman as she is, independent of his own needs. His sexuality is integrated into his life, not an autonomous function that drives him. He can differentiate between love and lust. He is capable of lasting relationships because he can tell the difference between the object of his desire and his inner image of woman.
In the fourth stage, as Sophia (called Wisdom in the Bible), a man’s anima functions as a guide to the inner life, mediating to consciousness the contents of the unconscious. Sophia is behind the need to grapple with the grand philosophical issues, the search for meaning. She is Beatrice in Dante’s Inferno, the creative muse in any artist’s life. She is a natural mate for the archetypal wise old man in the male psyche. Jung commented that “in the psychic development of modern man this stage is rarely reached,” a comment first published in 1964 and which I find very interesting indeed (195).
Theoretically, a man’s anima development proceeds through these stages as he grows older. When the possibilities of one have been exhausted, the psyche stimulates the move to the next stage. This move seldom happens without a struggle or a crisis of some sort that helps to move a man forward in his anima development, but the move forward is always worthwhile, for it leads him ever onward, to his true inner home.
As with any psychological content, anima relations have their pitfalls. For example, a man may be captured by his anima, so to speak, and so identify with her that he finds her in an actual woman, marries or partners with her, and is led away from his responsibility to himself. In fairy tales, this problem is often represented by the false bride character.
When inner realities are not recognized or owned, they appear in the outside world through projection. Thus, if a man’s anima is lonely and desperate for attention, he will tend to fall in love with dependent women who demand his time and energy. The man with a mother-bound anima will choose a woman who wants to take care of him. The man not living up to his potential will be attracted to women who goad him on and make more of him than he would otherwise be. In other words, whatever qualities a man does not recognize or develop within himself will confront him in real life.
For humans to become super-conscious, they must develop the neocortex to the uttermost extent, and thus acquire the power, knowledge, reasoning and understanding of the gods.― Jack Tanner, The Angel Experiment
Can’t usually experience the Wise One consistently until we undergo a kind of inner death and lose all certainty. Things seem meaningless, hence the archetype of meaning appears.
2018.07.13 17:07 izumi3682 Izumi3682 Archives
2016.07.22 00:56 Interversity Sex Differences in Machiavellianism
[Niccolo Machiavelli] Although historians continue to debate how best to characterize this sixteenth century Florentine writer (Jensen 1960), few dispute the impact of his two most famous works: The Prince (Machiavelli 1513) and Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius (Machiavelli 1531). Indeed, interpretations of these works have resulted in the label Machiavellian becoming a negative epithet, indicating at least an amoral (if not immoral) way of manipulating others to accomplish one's objectives. Although Machiavelli wrote for political leaders in sixteenth century Italy, many analysts believe that his ideas are applicable to modem business managers.This particular trait seems to be harder to study and make definite claims about. Sex drive is relatively straightforward compared to it (wanna fuck?). Machiavellianism and psychological manipulation are much more complex behaviors with confounding variables all over the place. Studies in this area are often in the context of ethics in business practices, which may or may not translate directly to non-commercial interpersonal relationships, and might confound results even further as it seems likely women in any type of high level position are more likely to exhibit Mach behavior (ahem... HRC).
Some writers openly advocate Machiavellian tactics for the top executive who wishes to stay in power. For example. McMurry (1973) recommends that "an executive-politician must: use caution in taking counsel . . . avoid too close superior-subordinate relationships. . . not hesitate to be ruthless when expedient ... limit what is to be communicated. . . learn never to place too much dependence on a subordinate unless it is clearly in the latter's personal advantage to be loyal. . .and give outward evidence of status, power, and material success w (pp. 144-145). Entire treatises apply Machiavellian tactics to management (Jay 1969) and some (controversial) MBA courses specifically teach Machiavellian techniques (Business Week 1975).
This research is designed to gain an understanding of how accounting students respond to realistic, business ethical dilemmas. Prior research suggests that accounting students exhibit lower levels of ethical reasoning compared to other business and non-business majors. This study uses the Defining Issues Test, Version 2 (Rest, et al., 1999) to measure accounting students ethical reasoning processes. The Mach IV scale (Christie and Geis, 1970) is used to measure moral behavior. Eight ethical vignettes adapted from prior ethics studies represent realistic, business ethical scenarios. A total of sixty-eight undergraduate accounting students are used to examine three hypotheses. Literature suggests that individuals with lower ethical reasoning levels are more likely to agree with unethical behavior. Therefore, hypothesis one investigates the relationship between ethical reasoning and ethical decision making. Literature also suggests that individuals agreeing with Machiavellian statements are more likely to agree with questionable activities. Hypothesis two investigates the relationship between Machiavellian behavior and ethical decision making. Prior gender literature suggests that gender influences ethical decision making, with females being more ethical than males. Therefore, hypothesis three examines whether female accounting students agree less with questionable activities compared to males. Results indicate that ethical reasoning is significantly correlated with students ethical ratings on the business vignettes. Similarly, Machiavellian behavior is significantly correlated with students ethical ratings. Consistent with prior gender literature, females agree less with questionable activities compared to male accounting students.Achievement and Machiavellianism among Men and Women Managers
Mehrabian's achievement scale and the Mach IV were administered to 51 male and 51 female managers. No significant differences were obtained for the Mach scores between groups, but the women scored significantly higher than the men on achievement. Moreover, those respondents who scored very high on Mach tended significantly to score low on achievement. (!) The reverse relationship was not found.Machiavellianism and Job Satisfaction of Retailing Executives in a Specialty Store Chain
The Mach IV scale and the Job Descriptive Index were administered to 60 managers of specialty stores. Female store managers scored significantly higher on the Mach IV scale, and no significant differences were observed between men and women on the five subscales of the Job Descriptive Index. A significant relation for women was observed between Machiavellianism and satisfaction with opportunities for promotion. This was the only significant finding of 15 regression analyses examining the relations between Machiavellianism and job satisfaction for the entire sample, for men and for women.Job Satisfaction and Machiavellian Orientation among Department Store Executives
The Mach IV scale and the Index of Job Satisfaction were administered to 218 department store executives. Female executives scored significantly higher on the Mach IV scale and significantly lower on the Index of Job Satisfaction than male executives. A significant negative correlation was observed between Machiavellianism and Job Satisfaction for the entire sample, for men and for women.Contrary finding to the previous study wherein there was no significant difference between men and women managers in Mach score.
We examined via self-report relations between Machiavellianism (MACH), sexual attitudes and a variety of sexual behaviors, including a willingness to force sexual acts on another in the absence of culpability. As predicted, MACH is associated with an open, promiscuous and hostile set of sexual attitudes. In addition, MACH is associated with a variety of self-serving and deceptive sexual tactics such as cheating, divulging intimate sexual secrets to third parties, and both feigning love and inducing intoxication to secure sex. MACH is also positively associated with an expressed willingness to force others into sexual acts in the absence of culpability. However, many of these relationships are moderated by participant sex. As would be predicted by either biological or socialization based accounts of sexuality, these relationships are attenuated or absent for the female participants. The discussion focuses on the nature of MACH sexuality, and how this differs in men and women.Social Perception as a Function of Machiavellianism
Using a hypothetical situation describing a stimulus person who succeeds or fails to win a desired promotion through merit or influence, we tested the hypotheses that greater ethical sensitivity in their evaluation of the stimulus person would be displayed by low compared with high Machiavellians and by female compared with male subjects. The experiment employed a 2 × 2 × 2× 2 (Subject's Machiavellanism × Subject's Sex × Stimulus Person's Merit vs. Influence × Stimulus Person's Success vs. Failure) factorial design, with 10 subjects per cell. The dependent measures were ratings of the stimulus person on intelligence, morality, and likability. The stimulus person with merit was rated more favorably on all three dimensions than the person with influence. Female subjects showed a greater ethical sensitivity in their evaluations compared with male subjects. The expectation that low would show greater ethical sensitivity than high Machiavellians was supported only in the case of female subjects; a somewhat opposite finding was obtained in the case of male subjects.On Different Relationships between Dogmatism and Machiavellianism among Male and Female College Students
A brief dogmatism scale and the Kiddie Machiavellianism Scale were answered by 112 male and 83 female students. The men's Mach scores were higher than the women's. The correlation between dogmatism and Mach— was not significant in either sex; in contrast, the correlation between dogmatism and Mach+ was significant for both sexes, r being significantly greater for the women than for the men. Agreement response set therefore seemed to be involved in the correlations between these scales for both sexes, though more for the women than the men. Factor by factor correlations indicated that for the men, the main other overlap between these two scales was an unflattering view of people, as hypothesized by Christie and Geis; for the women, however, the overlap between the scales was more extensive. The interpretation of this sex difference suggested the possibility that women may be more Machiavellian than their scores suggest and may even be more Machiavellian than men, though their scores typically suggest the opposite.Marketing and Machiavellianism
Younger marketers are more Machiavellian than older marketers, and singles are more Machiavellian than marrieds. Nevertheless, several of our findings directly contradict either the research findings of previous writers or their speculations. Sex was a significant predictor of Machiavellianism: women were more Machiavellian than men. This finding is inconsistent with most studies. which generally show women to score lower in Machiavellianism than men. The regression results also show, contrary to the findings of Wenhiem, Widom, and Wortzel (1978), that marketers who majored as undergraduates in business administration are not more Machiavellian than marketers who majored in other areas. Similarly, contrary to previous research and speculation, neither education nor size of firm was a significant predictor of Machiavellianism. That is, marketers who are more highly educated are not more Machiavellian and neither are those who work for smaller companies. Finally, there were no significant differences relating to the kinds of jobs that marketers hold. Marketers in sales and advertising positions were not more Machiavellian than marketers in marketing research or staff positions. Taken in total, the results suggest that marketers who are high in Machiavellianism have a tendency to be younger, single, and female.This paper in particular is pretty accessible in terms of readability, so if you're looking to actually read through a full paper, I'd go for this one.
The personalities of lawyers are often categorized to be immoral, at least more so than those of other professionals. An abundance of literature parallels this generalization and depicts lawyers’ personalities as narcissistic, psychopathic and high in Machiavellian attitudes. Together, these three traits form the “Dark Triad” of personality. 53 law students from 3 law schools in Ontario completed a survey measuring their levels on the “Dark Triad” traits. Furthermore, each participant revealed their gender, year of study, and the field of law they aspired to enter. Results show that the law students from the present sample do not display any “Dark Triad” trait significantly greater than the general population. Furthermore, it found that male law students were not significantly “darker” than female law students, on average. However, 1st year law students were found to score significantly higher on the narcissism trait than both second and third-year students. There were no other significant differences between the students in different years of schooling. Lastly, those wishing to enter criminal law scored significantly higher on the Machiavellianism trait than those wishing to enter tax law. No other fields of law differed significantly on any of the three traits. These findings suggest that law students, and perhaps lawyers themselves, are not deserving of the pejorative stereotype assigned to them. Furthermore, it suggests that male law students are no more responsible for the assigned stereotype than females. Next, the present research implies that law school, or perhaps the aging process, may actually serve to reduce the narcissism trait suggested to be present in law students. Finally, the research proposes that those aspiring to enter criminal law may be more responsible for the assigned stereotype whereas those aspiring to enter tax law experience the most apparent wrongful stereotyping.Multivariate analysis of male and female professional career choice correlates.
Personality, aptitude, achievement, and social-demographic characteristics of graduate students in 4 professional degree programs were investigated in a comparative multivariate analysis of the correlates of professional career choice. 173 male and 175 female 1st-yr graduate students in 2 traditionally male fields (law and management) and 2 traditionally female fields (education and social work) completed an extensive questionnaire. Results confirmed the central hypothesis of the study: Differences across careers for each variable were greater than differences between the sexes within careers. In contrast to previous findings, no significant sex differences were found in assertiveness, locus of control, or Machiavellianism. Sex differences were primarily confined to the variables relating to psychological masculinity–femininity and sex role attitudes. The limitations of the current design are noted, and it is stressed that these findings are correlational in nature. Preexisting dispositions and attitudes may be the best predictors of professional career choice, although it is equally possible that these attitudes and attributes are adopted after people have made their career choices (i.e., during graduate school).Deception in disclosing one's sexual history: Safe‐sex avoidance or ignorance?
As previously mentioned, there are two types of lies relevant to this research (a) a lie of omission, where the liar chooses not to disclose information, and (b) a lie of commission, where the liar chooses to alter information. In this sample, both types of lies occurred. Lie of omission. As Table 2 illustrates, over 32% percent of the students who were sexually active (« = 99) said that they omitted telling at least one of their previous sexual partners about their sexual history. In addition, over 17% of the sexually active students omitted telling all of their partners about their sexual history (n = 53). There were no gender differences for these findings. Lie of commission. Overall, 24% of the sexually active students had misrepresented their sexual history to a sexual partner (« = 75). As might be expected from previous research (Stebleton & Rothenberger, 1993), men were significantly more likely to lie about their numbers of previous sexual partners than were women.Not related directly to Machiavellianism, but I found it in the course of my searching and thought it was interesting and relevant to our interests.
We explored the relationship between Machiavellian personality, mate attraction strategies, and intimacy. Participants filled out the Mach IV and self-report questionnaires about the use of deceptive tactics in attracting potential dating partners, level of intimacy, and previous dating history. Higher scores on Machiavellianism were associated with greater likelihood of using deceptive tactics and lower levels of relationship intimacy. However, for women the relationship between Machiavellianism and deceptive strategies was moderated by the history of intimate behaviors. Implications and future directions are discussed.All I have to say is !!
Consistent with our prediction, and regardless of gender, we found a strong association between Machiavellian tendencies, and the use of deceptive mating strategies. Individuals scoring high on the Machiavellian scale were willing to engage more freely in deceptive behaviors than individuals scoring lower on the scale as predicted by Wilson et al. (1996). Whether or not these manipulative behaviors may promote the attributes that are perceived as attractive or desirable, and/or whether or not the use of deceptive tactics indirectly (e.g., particularly, in how they are perceived by others) leads to more effective mating outcomes has yet to be demonstrated.
Further, an interesting pattern of results emerged regarding gender differences in the way in which Machiavellianism relates to mating behavior. Overall, there was no difference between men and women for the use of DMS, but higher order interactions suggested a more complex relationship. For men, there was a consistent relationship between Mach and DMS. Furthermore, there was an independent effect for HIB on DMS, so that the higher the score on the Machiavellian scale and the greater the number of past relationships, the more deceptive strategies were likely to be reported. In contrast, for women, the relationship between Mach and deceptive strategies was moderated by history of intimate behaviors. Among women, lower levels of HIB (fewer past relationships) yielded a stronger association between Mach and deceptive strategies. However, at higher levels of HIB (more past relationships), there was less of an association between Mach and DMS. In other words, among women who scored high on the Machiavellian scale, those with fewer past relationships were more likely to use deceptive strategies than were those with more past relationships. It appears as though for women, prior relationship experience dampened the tendency of a woman with a Machiavellian personality to use deception in mating behaviors. (!!!)
Associations of Machiavellianism (Mach) with self-report and performance emotional intelligence (EI) and with personality were examined. The possible existence of an emotional manipulation capability, not covered within current EI measures, was also examined by constructing an emotional manipulation scale. Mach was found to be negatively correlated with self-report and performance EI, and also with Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Emotional manipulation was positively correlated with Mach but unrelated to EI. Thus high Machs endorse emotionally-manipulative behaviour, although the extent to which they are successful in this behaviour, given the negative Mach/EI association, remains to be established.And we know that women are higher in EI, and higher in Agreeableness, although only higher in certain aspects of Conscientiousness (ibid), which would seem to suggest that they would have lower Mach scores on average.
Researchers who administer Machiavellianism scales to respondents frequently report on the presence or absence of sex differences in Mach scores, and findings are clearly mixed. Some studies support the position that women are less Machiavellian than men are (11), while others detect the opposite pattern (6). Still others find no evidence of sex differences in Mach scores (18).The reference above (11) is to the study below. Reference (6) refers to the study up a ways, titled "Job Satisfaction and Machiavellian Orientation among Department Store Executives." I cannot for the life of me find reference (18) despite seeing it referred to multiple times during my search, but I feel comfortable accepting this author's assertion that it found no evidence of difference.
Mach scores from all subjects gave a mean of 84.36 (SD = 13.59). As expected, men had significantly higher Mach scores than women.MACHIAVELLIANISM AND LOCUS OF CONTROL AMONG INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM GAME PLAYERS.pdf)
The purpose of the study was to compare the Machiavellianism and locus of control among intercollegiate level individual and team game players. The present study was conducted on 120 players, playing at intercollegiate level (Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-Maharashtra) by purposive sampling method. 60 players were individual game players (30 male players and 30 female players), and 60 players were team game players (30 male players and 30 female players). The data were collected through Machiavellianism scale (Rai & Gupta, 1982) and locus of control scale (Hasnain & Joshi, 1982). The Mean, SD and univariate two way ANOVA was applied to assess the differences between individual and team game players. Results revealed that team game players and male players are more Machiavellian oriented than individual game players and female players respectively. No significant difference is found between individual and team game players in terms of their locus of control. But, it has been found that male players are internally oriented than female players.The Construct of Machiavellianism: Twenty years Later
A stereotyped view of the high Mach suggests that he or she would prefer a business career. Consistent with the stereotype, subjects faking Machiavellianism prefer business-related occupations whereas helping professions are least preferred (Skinner et al., 1976). Research on actual career choices points to the same conclusion. For example, Wertheim, Widom, and Wortzel (1978) found that law and management students had the highest Mach scores, followed by education students. Social work students had the lowest scores. Steininger and Eisenberg (1976) found that business students scored higher on Machiavellianism than did English and Sociology students. Chonko (1982) also reported that purchasing managers were more Machiavellian than other groups in the literature.Okay, that's a lot of text. My (unscientific) interpretations are that the literature is not conclusive by any stretch on the question of whether men or women are, on the whole, more Machiavellian. Multiple studies suggest men are higher, multiple suggest women are higher, multiple find little to no difference, and many of these studies are highly limited in nature. An evo psych perspective would assume that women would be higher Mach as they do not have access to physical violence as a form of social control, but this appears to be unfounded, although we can't be sure that the Mach IV test is a completely reliable indicator of psychological manipulation in terms of social control.
Are Machiavellians successful in their chosen professions? Christie (1970c) was surprised when a national survey revealed that high Machs did not have more prestigious jobs or higher incomes than low Machs. Similarly, Turnbull (1976) found no relation between Machiavellianism and success measured by sales productivity. Touhey (1973) also failed to find an overall relation between Machiavellianism and social mobility (assessed as the discrepancy between one's father's and one's own socioeconomic status) in a sample of men from a variety of occupational settings. However, when subjects' IQ scores were taken into account, greatest social mobility was found for the high Mach-high IQ group; lowest mobility was found in the high Mach-low IQ group. Based on this finding, Turner and Martinez (1977) reexamined Christie's survey data and found that education had a similar moderating effect. For men with above-average education, there was a significant positive relation between Machiavellianism and occupational attainment (salary, job prestige); for men with below-average education, a significant negative relation was found. For women, Machiavellianism and occupational status were positively correlated. (Note, however, that only 26% of the female subjects held positions that were classifiable in terms of occupational status.)
One of the earliest papers on Machiavellianism examined the relation between Mach scores and academic success. Singer (1964) conducted a number of studies and found low to moderate correlations between Mach V scores and GPA. The correlations were lower for women than for men, leading Singer to speculate that it may be not be socially acceptable for women to use direct manipulation to obtain good grades; instead, women might use "strategies of attractiveness and appearance rather than deceit and management" (p. 140). Ames and Kidd (1979) suggested that the weak relation between women's GPA and Mach V scores in Singer's studies might best be accounted for in terms of gender-role orientation rather than gender per se. Based on the fear of success literature, they suggested that feminine-typed women might "manipulate to prevent themselves from appearing overly successful academically" (p. 224). They expected and found no overall relation between Mach scores and GPA. For feminine-typed women (as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory), the correlation was - .64; for masculine-typed women, the correlation was .61. The authors acknowledge that there are many possible interpretations for these findings. For example, it is unclear whether feminine Machiavellian women are using manipulation to reduce their grades or are simply rejecting the use of manipulative tactics. The data do suggest that masculine-typed Machiavellian women may be willing to use manipulation to get good grades.